Based on resource dependency theory, this study investigates how the two dimensions of dependence – dependence asymmetry and mutual dependence – affect the adoption of internet-enabled supply chain management systems (eSCM). Drawing from the relational view of the firm, we argue that there are two types of relational value that can be provided by eSCM: relationship extendedness and relational depth. Dependence structure will influence firms’ incentive to obtain relationship extendedness and relational depth, which will in turn affect eSCM adoption. We collected data from mainland China using an online questionnaire and 212 valid samples were received. The emergent results show positive influence of dependence structure on relationship extendedness and relational depth. Positive effects of dependence structure and relationship relational depth on eSCM adoption are also found. However, the finding suggests a significant negative effect of relationship extendedness on eSCM, which is contradictory to the hypothesis. Future research is needed to interpret the counterintuitive finding.