Many large organizations are now dependent on Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems for their daily operations. ERP systems allow enterprises to integrate various processes across different functional areas in an attempt to increase productivity, efficiency and to sustain their competitive edge. However, despite the various positive outcomes of adopting ERP systems, the implementation process poses a number of challenges for organizations. The implementation process is described as costly, complex and risky whereby firms have not able to derive benefits from the systems despite huge investments. This research reports on the case of a failed ERP implementation in a large South African organization and looks into the organizational and knowledge challenges that contributed to the failure of the ERP system. While ERP implementations within large organizations have been well researched, there has been relatively fewer studies focusing on the organizational and knowledge challenges faced by organizations. The study seeks to close the identified gap, hence contributing to the existing body of knowledge.