Digital transformation has been shaping the way enterprises operate in several different dimensions. Industry 4.0 is one of these dimensions as it represents the adoption by the industrial companies of the techniques and processes allowed by digitization, cloud computing, internet of things and big data, to gain competitive advantages in the domestic and global markets. Measuring how the manufacturing sector is adopting Industry 4.0, is challenging, given that there is not a closed definition of the term and that the collection of information is not specifically directed to the Industry 4.0 concepts. Recognizing these difficulties, the present study attempts to measure the readiness for the adoption of Industry 4.0 across the European Union, using Eurostat data. The information obtained shows large disparities among EU countries in what concerns the possibility of existence of Industry 4.0.
Castelo-Branco, Isabel and Cruz-Jesus, Frederico, "Exploratory factor analysis for assessing Industry 4.0: Evidence for the European Union" (2018). 2018 Proceedings. 2.