When it comes to engaging with health information in their daily lives, people face different challenges. In the context of COVID-19, the aim of this study is to determine whether health information literacy can assist people in making informed health-related decisions. An empirical study was conducted to investigate such an effect. Building on a dataset composed of 155 respondents, the research model was examined through structural equation modelling. The results showed that health information literacy – as an individual ability – not only influences health decision making but also has a direct impact on the awareness of the challenges imposed by the current pandemic situation. In addition, the results show that too much information leads to information fatigue, and consequently negatively impacts decision making. The findings of this paper show that the concept of health information literacy should be understood and developed separately from the health literacy concept. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed.