Although there have been many grand visions for the transformative capacity of e-Government initiatives, the actual realization of these visions has met with mixed results. This paper argues that current approaches to appraising the benefits and consequences of e-government initiatives are constrained by a narrow technologically determinist perspective focused on ICT investment rather than policy and service outcomes. An analysis of the Australian Federal Government’s approach to justifying e-Government initiatives provides the basis for recommending an alternative, complementary approach based on Constructive Technology Assessment which provides stakeholders with opportunities through which they can influence the shaping of the infrastructure.