This study’s goal is to investigate and better understand critical success factors (CSFs) for enterprise system (ES) adoption. The research setting embraces ES adoptions conducted in Polish companies, therefore it focuses on a transition economy environment. On the basis of research conducted among more than a hundred Polish companies that had adopted ES, an analysis based on grounded theory revealed 20 CSFs grouped into 4 categories. Next, a stakeholder analysis of discovered CSFs allowed us to propose stakeholder groups, the evaluation of their importance and relationships. Achieved results were compared with the findings of prior research conducted in developed and developing economies. The main results suggest that CSFs for ES adoption in transition economies are first and foremost people-related. The article concludes with the discussion of further research.