The implementation process for “enterprise application software” (e.g. software from SAP, Oracle, Baan, or PeopleSoft) is notable for the cost, the amount of time, and the degree of organizational change it entails. The adaptation phase (Kwon and Zmud, 1987), during which differences between software functionality and organizational requirements are resolved through a combination of organizational process changes and software customization, is particularly challenging. The research focuses on how change is effected during this central phase of the implementation process. Formally stated, the research question is: “What are the critical dimensions shaping organizational changes during the adaptation phase of enterprise application software implementation?