Researchers have defined microcomputer playfulness (MCP) as a situation-specific individual characteristic that represents a type of cognitive playfulness [46]. Further, MCP describes the tendency to interact spontaneously, inventively, and imaginatively with computers. Studies [46] have suggested that MCP should be measured as both a trait and a state variable. The issue over whether MCP is a trait, a state, or a combination of the two, parallels the disagreement in social and applied psychology among situationists and trait theorists. To clarify this and other issues, we synthesize the literature from psychology and human resource management (HRM) to develop a theory of MCP using multiple constructs.