The aim of the paper is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on Organizational Learning (OL) and Knowledge Management (KM). We will do this by focusing on a specific domain of OL: ‘external learning’ or the exchange of knowledge between organizations. In general, KM is seen as a method organizations and managers can use to improve the knowledge within the organization. Surprisingly less attention is given to the way KM might improve the knowledge that is being exchanged and created between the organization and the environment.