The use of the term virtual (e.g., virtual team, virtual organization) is frequently used in describing existing organizational structures. However, virtual structures appear to be on a "continuum of virtualness" instead of a binary "virtual or not virtual" structure. This paper develops a research framework defining “virtualness” based on differences in team member location, the degree of work cycle synchronicity, and differences in team member culture.
Speier, Cheri and Palmer, Jonathan, "A Definition of Virtualness" (1998). AMCIS 1998 Proceedings. 191.