In Figure 1 we present a causal model of the relationship between time pressure and decision quality.The model represents causes and effects in an individual actor working toward a decision. This model distinguishes between the actor's perception of high effort per unit time and the psychological stress that may result from such a perception. An explanation of the model is followed by recommendations for the design of compensatory decision aids for use under time pressure. The model is founded on three assumptions: decision-making requires effort, effort is a limited resource, and effort is motivated by vested interest