In Figure 1 we present a causal model of the relationship between time pressure and decision quality.The model represents causes and effects in an individual actor working toward a decision. This model distinguishes between the actor's perception of high effort per unit time and the psychological stress that may result from such a perception. An explanation of the model is followed by recommendations for the design of compensatory decision aids for use under time pressure. The model is founded on three assumptions: decision-making requires effort, effort is a limited resource, and effort is motivated by vested interest
C.A.P., Smith and Briggs, Robert O., "A Causal Model of Individual Decision Making Under Time Pressure" (1997). AMCIS 1997 Proceedings. 1.