Observations of unexpected uses of technology triggered re-examination of current IS models of technology adoption, acceptance and use. The outcome is a framework for investigating the uptake of new technologies in our early twenty-first century environment. The framework draws on theories of context, portfolios and dialectics. Application of the framework to the use of training technologies in the Australian armed forces illustrates its usefulness as well as some further issues that remain relatively neglected in IS theorising. The paper concludes with implications for IS research and practice.