A systematic review of journal articles on Health Information Technology (HIT) adoption in Australian Hospitals was performed to identify the types of technology and benefits reported. 25 articles were analysed and systematically classified. The review was followed by grounded research with a focus group to interpret the concepts of HIT and benefits. Limited evidence for systematic benefits of HIT in hospitals and a lack of agreed taxonomies and frameworks was found, making systematic evaluation of HIT difficult. This highlights the urgent need to study HIT as a phenomenon in an Australian health systems context and the lack of systematic reviews of this to date. Also identified in current research are methodological limitations in terms of purely quantitative approaches to investigating information systems.