Systèmes d'Information et Management

Article Title

Transformation d'entreprise et développement des SI : le cas IBM


Between 1965 and 1989, the different corporate transformations in a simple and stable environment contributed to reinforce the structure of IBM that was functional and then divisional. These transformations were based upon structured methodologies for IS development. But with an environment complex and unstable, this divisional structure appeared to be unadaptated and its transformation was mandatory. The first phase of the reengineering of IBM marketing and sales processes in 1993, limited to the scope of the USA still relied on structured methodologies. This led to a failure. On the opposite, in 1994, the second phase of the worldwide reengineering was participative and with an explicit vision towards an innovative structure. IBM France, the "worldwide pilot" for the transformation of IBM customer relationship management processes is carried out through the resort of corporate prototyping. This allows to propose criteria helping to choose among IS development methods in a corporate transformation context. This choice can be made according to the targeted structure of the transformation (vision), the corporate objective and the environment type. The hypothesis is that in a transformation context towards a functional structure, when the objective is cost savings and when the environment is stable and simple, the structured methodologies will contribute more than cooperative methods, like prototyping, to this corporate transformation. On the other hand, in a transformation context towards an innovative structure, when the objective is flexibility and when the environment is unstable and complex, the methods likely to contribute to this corporate transformation are cooperative.

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