MOOCs (Massive Online Open Courses) are deemed to address the digital divide and promote equity in educational opportunities. However, the adoption rate of MOOCs is still low while the dropout rate is high, especially in developing countries. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to investigate what factors impact learners’ adoption of MOOCs in developing countries. Based on an innovation adoption perspective, potential drivers and barriers are derived the three dimensions – user characteristics, MOOC features, and the social environment. Eight hundred and thirteen individuals in a developing country were invited to participate in questionnaire survey. Data collected was analyzed by hierarchical regression method. It is found that self-regulation exerts the most significant impact on individuals’ adoption of MOOCs, followed by perceived usefulness, performance-tocost, and past experience. In terms of barriers, lack of access to MOOCs and lace of instructions are identified as main obstacles for adoption of MOOCs. In addition, the intention to adopt MOOCs is different between male and female. The implications and future research directions are discussed.