This paper explores the actual user-designer interactions in the design process. To address this, I conducted two field studies, in which I observed designers in two leading user-centered design firms over five months, documenting seven user-centered design projects. The observations revealed how designers bring ideas about users into design without physically interacting with users during the design process. Based on this, this study introduces the concept of ‘design attitude’, by which designers incorporate user ideas into the design process without actual involvement of users in the process. I contribute to the body of knowledge by introducing the concept of “design attitude” as a bridge between theoretical and actual designer-user interactions in the IS design process.
Park, Jaehyun, "Designer-User Interaction without Actual Users: A Lesson from Two Field Studies" (2015). PACIS 2015 Proceedings. 235.