Inclusion of people discontinuing their studies, so-called school drop-outs, represents a challenge in a modern information society, where numeracy, literacy and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills are needed in order to cope with everyday life. Several technology projects have been launched to explore the opportunities that mobile technologies bring about when tackling issues of social inclusion through mobile learning. Mobile devices are cheaper than for instance a Personal Computer (PC), and their affordance, usability and accessibility are such that they can potentially complement or even replace traditional computer technology. In this paper, a theoretical framework for mobile learning and e-inclusion is developed for people outside the conventional education system. The framework draws upon the fields of constructivist pedagogy, mobile learning objects and sociology. We also present data about the situation in Finland where we will use this theoretical framework to inform the design of mobile learning solutions for school drop-outs.