Industrie 4.0 focuses on end-to-end digital transformation with digital ecosystems. Digital transformation and industrie 4.0 are more efficient and effective with particular skills, knowledge and attitude. Leaders who practice leadership 4.0 are digital leaders and digital transformers. This digital leadership framework is based on a transformational, transactional, and authentic leadership matrix. This trichotomous leadership model is based on Adaptive Structuration Theory (AST) which applies the impact of Advanced Information Technology with leadership in a recursive relationship with each affecting and transforming the other.
Prince, Kylie A., "Industrie 4.0 and Leadership" (2017). ICEB 2017 Proceedings. 23.