This paper argues that the information systems (IS) field needs to widen its focus in three directions: from the systems development life cycle to the full systems life cycle, from information systems to business systems, and, most fundamentally, from Type I information work (clerical) to Type II information work (the work of line managers, staff managers, and professionals). This expanded vision will require new research and teaching methods. Most fundamentally, we need to embrace exploratory descriptive research in order to understand these areas before we can do effective theory-based empirical research.
Panko, Raymond, "RETHINKING "SYSTEMS" IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS (SYSTEMATICALLY)" (2012). ECIS 2012 Proceedings. 235.