Forthcoming Papers

Forthcoming papers have been accepted for publication at the Communications of the Association for Information Systems and are listed below in order of acceptance date. Copies of unedited manuscripts can be obtained by contacting the corresponding authors listed below.

Note that the decision to provide a copy rests with the authors, not with the Communications of the Association for Information Systems.

The manuscripts listed here will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proofs before they are published in their final form. During the production process errors may be discovered, which could affect the content. All legal disclaimers that apply to the Communications of the Association for Information Systems pertain. For a definitive version of the works listed here, please check for their appearance online at http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/.

Explaining Software-as-a-Service Outsourcing: Economic and Social Considerations

Yao, Yurong (yyao@suffolk.edu); Kamis, Arnold A.; Watson, Edward


Software-as-a-service offers an innovative way to deliver software over the Internet to distributed organizations. While more and more SaaS providers are joining the market and competition among providers becomes more intense, it is important to understand the considerations of potential clients. Built on transaction cost theory and social exchange theory, this study empirically investigates, with a national survey of IT/IS executives, the role of economic factors and the impact of social relationships on the economic factors in the SaaS outsourcing decision. It is found that cost savings are a critical consideration in SaaS outsourcing, while social relationships exert a strong, positive direct impact on cost savings and positively moderate the impact of cost savings on SaaS outsourcing. This paper expands our theoretical understanding of the SaaS phenomenon and provides some managerial insights.

Persevere or Exit: What is the Right Strategy?

Bose, Indranil (bose@iimcal.ac.in)


The teaching case describes the telecommunications market of India as it goes through a major transformation due to adoption of mobile telephony. The country with its huge market size and low teledensity provides an attractive opportunity for foreign multinationals. Telenor enters into the Indian market through a joint venture with Unitech Wireless under the brand name of Uninor, and targets the value-conscious segment of mobile customers with its attractive pricing schemes. After a few years of rapid growth, Uninor faces a huge business risk when the Supreme Court of India rules that its purchased spectrum is illegal. The case describes the aftermath of the 2G spectrum scam and how it adversely affects the future of Uninor. At this critical juncture, Telenor faces a strategic decision dilemma. Should it continue its operations in the ever growing Indian mobile market or should it cut its losses and exit before any further damage is done to its global brand? This teaching case imparts important lessons about doing telecommunications related business in an emerging economy where returns are high and business risks immense.

Understanding the Why, What, and How of Theories in IS Research

Mueller, Benjamin (b.mueller@rug.nl); Urbach, Nils


Theory’s pivotal importance has been emphasized in the information systems (IS) discipline since its inception. As in many fields of science, IS scholars’ ability to understand and contribute to theory is an important qualification in research practice. This requires solid foundations for why we engage with theory, what theory is for us, and how we work with theory. We synthesize and reflect on the debates on theories and theorizing in the IS field. Our key contribution is to inform (new) authors of the prevailing state-of-the-art and to help identify opportunities in theorizing to put theory to work. While only a first step, we hope that our synthesis of the status quo advances our discipline’s current efforts towards enhancing theorizing and addressing the increasing demand for theoretical contributions and that it critically reflects on the status quo to help us move beyond it.

The World IT Project: History, Trials, Tribulations, Lessons, and Recommendations

Palvia, Prashant (pcpalvia@uncg.edu); Jacks, Tim F.; Ghosh, Jaideep; Licker, Paul; Romm-Livermore, Celia; Serenko, Alexander; Turan, Aykut H.


The World IT Project, the largest study of its kind in the IS field, was conceived more than a decade ago. This ambitious mega project with an enormous global scale was formally launched in 2013 and is expected to be completed by 2017, with major publications appearing through 2019. The project was in response to the pervasive bias in IS research towards American and Western views. What is glaringly lacking in IS research is a global view that tries to understand the major IS issues in the world in the context of unique cultural, economic, political, religious, and societal environments. The World IT Project captures the organizational, technological, and individual issues of IT employees across the world and relates them to cultural and organizational factors. This first major article provides the objectives and history of the project, its general framework, important decision points, and recommendations for future researchers based on lessons learned from a massive global project. Ultimately, we hope to provide a world view of IT issues that will be relevant to stakeholders at the firm, national, and international levels. We also invite scholars to send their recommendations for the analysis and writing of papers using our vast database.

Delivering Disruption in an Emergent Access Economy: A Case Study of an E-Hailing Platform

Tan, Felix Ter Chian (f.tan@unsw.edu.au); Tan, Barney; Lu, Anthony; Land, Lesley


The growing adoption of platforms such as Uber and Airbnb has contributed to the emergence of an access economy, disrupting a number of incumbent industries in the process. In this study, we examine goCatch, one of Australia’s largest e-hailing and ride-sharing multi-sided platforms. From our investigations, we find that the technology affordances of multi-sided digital platforms can help to deliver new commercial services and offerings to consumers of the platform, enabling new forms of consumption, and subsequently disrupting the incumbent industry. The findings from our study provide the empirical premise for a model illustrating the role of technology in enabling consumer recognition, consumer engagement and consumer transposition in the context of e-hailing. For theory, we build on extant literature to identify the forms of motivational affordances leveraged in disruptive platforms and technologies. For practice, we conceptualise the function of technology-enabled gamification as an emergent strategy that can be used to induce consumers to change their behaviours, develop their technical skills and drive innovation that plays a central role in enabling digital disruption. This study also clarifies the relationship between technology affordances and value creation against the backdrop of the emergent access economy.

To fear or not to fear? A critical review and analysis of fear appeals in the information security context

Wall Jeffrey D (jdwall@mtu.edu); Buche, Mari W.


Controlling organizational insiders’ security behaviors is an important management concern. Research presents fear appeals as a viable security control to promote protective security behaviors. To date, security-related fear appeals have proven to be effective in controlling insiders’ security behaviors. However, a critical examination of fear appeals provides a different story. Herein, we critically analyze security-related fear appeal research from two ontological positions, critical realism and critical constructivism. The critical realist analysis identifies several issues with existing fear appeal research, which may be caused by particular research traditions. These traditions and issues are explicated in the paper. The critical constructivist analysis draws on critical management studies of control and the work of Foucault to identify the identities, beliefs, and values that fear appeals promote and the ways in which fear appeals create discursive closures that limit the consideration and discussion of other positions. Based on the two analyses, we provide important directions for future fear appeal research.

Using Mechanical Turk Data in IS Research: Risks, Rewards, and Recommendations

Jia, Ronnie (ronniejia@gmail.com); Steelman, Zach; Reich, Blaize Horner


As crowdsourced data are becoming increasingly used in behavioral research disciplines, it is important to examine their appropriateness and desirability for IS research. Extending recent research in the IS literature, this work discusses the risks and rewards of using data gathered on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. We examine the characteristics of MTurk workers and the resulting method biases that may be exacerbated in MTurk data. Based on this analysis, a 2x2 matrix is presented to illustrate the categories of IS research questions that are and are not amenable to MTurk data. We suggest that MTurk data is more appropriate for generalizing studies that examine diverse cognition than for contextualizing studies or those involving shared cognition. Finally, a set of practical recommendations is offered for researchers who wish to collect data on MTurk.

Analyzing Crisis Response through Actor-Network Theory: The Case of Kathmandu Living Labs

Thapa, Devinder (devinder.thapa@uia.no); Budhathoki, Nama; Munkvold, Bjørn Erik


Crisis response is the most critical stage in crisis management where actors make important decisions on mitigating the effects of the crisis. However, the decision-making in such situations is a complex sociotechnical phenomenon. The literature specifies crisis response to include the four steps of observation, interpretation, choice and dissemination, and suggests a sociotechnical approach for analyzing these. However, theoretical guidelines for conducting a sociotechnical analysis of the complexity involved in the crisis response activities are still lacking. To contribute to this knowledge gap, this paper presents an interpretive case study of the role of the Kathmandu Living Labs (KLL) in the response to the Nepal earthquake in 2015. We analyze the case using Actor-Network Theory (ANT), exploring how a social entrepreneur from KLL enrolled different technical and human actors and mobilized them in the crisis response. ANT unfolds the temporal and interdependent role of digital volunteers, local communities and technologies in responding to the crisis, dealing with the challenges of clustering, filtering and verifying large volumes of data in an urgent and evolving crisis situation. The paper demonstrates the usefulness of ANT’s translation process in understanding the complex sociotechnical process of crisis response in disaster events.

Collaboration in Agile Software Development: Concept and Dimensions

Batra, Dinesh (batra@fiu.edu); Xia, Weidong; Zhang, Mingyu


One of the four values listed in the Agile Manifesto emphasizes customer collaboration over contract negotiation; yet, what constitutes customer collaboration and how to assess it has not been explained in the literature. There is limited research on the nature and dimensions of collaboration in the context of agile software development. Based on a grounded theory methodology using interview data collected from five software development outsourcing vendors in China, this study explores the nature and key underlying dimensions of collaboration in agile software development. Five major dimensions of collaboration emerged from our analysis: mutual benefits, engagement, coordination, communication, and knowledge sharing. Each of these dimensions is in turn composed of key sub-dimensions that provide a comprehensive view of collaboration. By revealing the underlying nature and key dimensions, we provide a conceptual basis for operationalizing collaboration that can be employed in future quantitative studies on agility and other project outcomes. Our study results suggest that collaboration in agile software development is multifaceted and mutual occurring in both directions between the customer and the vendor; rather than single-dimensional as indicated by the term “customer” collaboration used in the Agile Manifesto.

A Guide to Text Analysis with Latent Semantic Analysis in R with Annotated Code Studying Online Reviews and the Stack Exchange Community

Gefen, David (gefend@drexel.edu); Endicott, James E.; Fresneda, Jorge E.; Miller, Jake; Larsen, Kai R.


The objective of this guide is to introduce researchers in the behavioral sciences, and MIS in particular, to text analysis as done with Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). The guide contains hands-on annotated code samples in R that walk the reader through a typical process of acquiring relevant texts; creating a semantic space out of them; and then projecting words, phrase, or documents onto that semantic space to calculate their lexical similarities. R is an open source, popular programming language with extensive statistical libraries. The guide introduces LSA as a concept, discusses the process of preparing the data, and its potential as well as limitations. The guide proceeds to demonstrate this process through a sequence of annotated code examples, starting with a study of online reviews that extracts lexical insight about trust. That R code applied singular value decomposition (SVD). The guide next demonstrates a realistically large data analysis of Stack Exchange, a popular Q&A site for programmers. That R code applies an alternative sparse SVD method. All the code and data are available on github.com.

A Taxonomy of Information System Projects’ Knowledge Sharing Mechanisms

Fteimi, Nora (nora.fteimi@uni-passau.de); Cai, Jianxiao; Basten, Dirk


Despite its criticality to the success of information system (IS) projects, knowledge sharing among IS projects is generally ineffective compared to knowledge sharing within IS projects. Although several mechanisms for knowledge sharing exist in the literature, it is difficult to determine which mechanism should be used in a specific context. An attempt to concisely and comprehensively classify these mechanisms remains lacking. Based on a literature review, we extracted information from 33 studies and identified twelve mechanisms for knowledge sharing among IS projects. Then, we derived a taxonomy for these mechanisms, which extends previous research by both adapting existing mechanisms and complementing the set of dimensions used for their classification. The results help to systematically structure the fields of knowledge management and IS projects. Both research and practice can use this taxonomy to better understand knowledge in this domain and effectively adopt mechanisms for a particular application.

An Experimental Investigation of the Individual and Joint Effects of Financial and Non-Financial Incentives on Knowledge Sharing Using Enterprise Social Media

Kettles, Degan (degank@gmail.com); St. Louis, Robert D.;Steinbart, Paul John


Many organizations implement Enterprise Social Media (ESM) in an effort to capture and store valuable knowledge possessed by employees. Unfortunately, more often than not, employees do not make a large number of knowledge contributions. Using agency theory and contingency theory as foundations, this paper examines managerial interventions that can improve knowledge contribution rates in ESM. Specifically, we investigate the individual and joint effects of paying people to share knowledge, providing social cues, and the presence of supporting and policing moderators on knowledge sharing. We further examine how two contingency factors, the nature of an employee’s compensation scheme (variable or fixed) for their primary work task, and the employee’s belief about the importance of sharing knowledge, affect the relative efficacy of the aforementioned managerial interventions. Although we find evidence that being paid to share knowledge and believing that knowledge sharing is inherently important both increase the amount of knowledge shared, our most important results concern the existence of significant interaction effects. For persons that are paid a fixed salary, we find that there is a surprisingly large, positive synergistic effect between being paid to share knowledge and believing that knowledge sharing is important; but that this synergistic effect is almost completely nullified by the introduction of a policing moderator. We discuss the implications of these findings for both practice and research.

Information Systems: A House Divided?

Stewart, Alex (alex.stewart@marquette.edu); Cotton, John L.; Adya, Monica


Is IS a singular field consisting of behavioral (BIS) and technical (TIS) focus? Or is IS really two fields, split between these orientations? Current opinion emphasizes BIS and reinforces the notion that research is practiced in disconnected silos, as opposed to a relatively continuous web. Such silos do disservice to the diversity of scholarly interests, skew productivity expectations in favor of small subsets of journals that often exclude technical and decision science oriented journals, and run the risk of creating self-perpetuating journal groupings. Silos disadvantage IS researchers by making the field narrower in comparison to other business disciplines and contradict the nature of IS pedagogy that equally reflects technology and management. In this study, we apply social network and cross-citation analyses to a sample of 98 IS journals to examine the cohesiveness of IS and to understand the extent to which boundary-spanning journals maintain scholarly connections between the approaches. We distinguish between weak and strong ties among journals and find that a field consisting of both BIS and TIS journals is highly cohesive in terms of weaker ties, and that many boundary-spanning journals are quite balanced in their citations to and from each orientation. We do not, however, find that IS is uniformly cohesive. Despite this, an implication is that IS scholars with different interests can parse out distinct subsets of journals that are central to their interests. We demonstrate this with an examination of the most central journals for three examples of IS scholars: those with a strongly behavioral approach, with sociotechnical interests, and with specialized interests, such as medical informatics. The most central journals for these three interests are distinct subsets of the IS field.

Relevant Research Areas in IT Service Management: An Examination of Academic and Practitioner Literatures

Marrone, Mauricio (mauricio.marrone@mq.edu.au);Hammerle, Mara


Practitioners and academics alike highlight a perceived lack of relevant Information Systems (IS) research, indicating that it may currently be of limited use and value to practitioners. Further, research provides examples of positive links between management practices prevalent in the media and their influence on societal views. This paper seeks to increase relevance of future academic research for practitioners by identifying sources of misalignment between practitioner and academic literatures on the topic of Information Technology Service Management (ITSM) and by developing a possible research agenda to address these misalignments. We do so by employing an entity annotator and keyword analysis to compare the main topics evident in academic and practitioner literatures on ITSM and focus on those salient in practitioner literature. Our results suggest that the topics of framework co-implementation, regulations, ITSM tools and gamification as well as cloud computing all present fertile grounds for relevant research within ITSM and IS more broadly. Our paper thus offers a unique way for academics to understand how they can best assist practitioners while increasing the relevance of academic research.

Multi-Disciplinary Green IT Archival Analysis: A Pathway for Future Studies

Sedera, Darshana (darshana.sedera@gmail.com); Lokuge, Sachithra; Tushi, Bonny; Tan, Felix


With the growth of information technology (IT), there is a growing global concern on the environmental impact of such technologies. As such, research on Green IT is considered as a vibrant theme amongst academics in several research disciplines. While the disparate knowledge within each discipline is gaining substantial momentum, a consolidated multi-disciplinary view of the salient findings of each research disciplines is required for Green IT research to reach its full potential. This paper provides a review of 390 papers published on Green IT between 2007−2015 in three disciplines: Computer Science, Information Systems and Management. The prevailing literature demonstrates the value of this consolidated approach for advancing our understanding on this complex global issue of environmental sustainability. The paper provides an overarching theoretical perspective to consolidate multi-disciplinary findings and then to encourage the information systems researchers to develop an effective cumulative tradition of research.

Contemporary Issues of Open Data in Information Systems Research: Considerations and Recommendations

Link, Georg J.P. (glink@unomaha.edu); Lumbard, Kevin; Conboy, Kieran; Feldman, Michael; Feller, Joseph; George, Jordana; Germonprez, Matt; Goggins Sean; Jeske, Debora; Kiely, Gaye; Schuster, Kristen ; Willis, Matt


Researchers, governments, and funding agencies are calling on research disciplines to embrace open data - data that is publicly accessible and usable beyond the original authors. The premise is that research efforts can draw and generate several benefits from open data, as such data might provide further insight, enabling the replication and extension of current knowledge in different contexts. These potential benefits, coupled with a global push towards open data policies, brings open data into the agenda of research disciplines – including Information Systems (IS). This paper responds to these developments as follows. We outline themes in the ongoing discussion around open data in the IS discipline. The themes fall into two clusters: (1) The motivation for open data includes themes of mandated sharing, benefits to the research process, extending the life of research data, and career impact; (2) The implementation of open data includes themes of governance, socio-technical system, standards, data quality, and ethical considerations. In this paper, we outline the findings from a pre-ICIS 2016 workshop on the topic of open data. The workshop discussion confirmed themes and identified issues that require attention in terms of the approaches that are currently utilized by IS researchers. The IS discipline offers a unique knowledge base, tools, and methods that can advance open data across disciplines. Based on our findings, we provide suggestions on how IS researchers can drive the open data conversation. Further, we provide advice for the adoption and establishment of procedures and guidelines for the archival, evaluation, and use of open data.

How Can Universities Best Encourage Women to Major in Information Systems?

Anderson, Lisa (lisaanderson@gmail.com); Edberg, Dana; Reed, Adam; Simkin, Mark G.; Stiver, Debra


Despite both government and industry initiatives, the under-representation of women in information systems (IS) continues. Can academia help right this imbalance by helping fill the pipeline for technically-qualified female employees? This paper analyzes the results of four experimental interventions based on empirical studies and prior surveys designed to address this issue. We conducted these interventions as projects in an introductory undergraduate IS class in a public university in the western U.S. Sadly, none of them were effective in encouraging more female students to consider majoring in IS.

Literature Reviews in IS Research: What Can Be Learnt from the Past and Other Fields?

Schryen, Guido (schryen@posteo.de); Benlian, Alexander; Rowe, Frantz; Gregor, Shirley; Larsen, Kai; Petter, Stacie; Paré, Guy; Wagner, Gerit; Haag, Steffi; Yasasin, Emrah


Literature reviews (LRs) are recognized for their increasing impact in the information systems literature. Methodologists have drawn attention to the question of how we can leverage the value of LRs to preserve and generate knowledge. The panelists who participated in the discussion of “Standalone Literature Reviews in IS Research: What Can Be Learnt from the Past and Other Fields?” at ICIS 2016 in Dublin acknowledged this significant issue and debated a) what the IS field can learn from other fields and where IS-specific challenges occur, b) how the IS field should move forward to foster the genre of LRs, and c) what best practices are to train doctoral IS students in publishing LRs. This article reports the key takeaways of this panel discussion. Guidance for IS scholars is provided on how to conduct LRs that contribute to the cumulative knowledge development within and across the IS field to best prepare the next generation of IS scholars.

Editorial: The History and Philosophy Department

Hassan, Nik R. (nhassan@d.umn.edu)


Amidst social and political upheavals and economic uncertainties, and the increasingly pivotal role of information and communications technologies, the information systems (IS) field is perfectly positioned to address both their social and technical perspectives. These unique perspectives can be found in the traditions of historical and philosophical articles that have always attracted the attention of IS researchers, but have not been given a formal channel to grow and thrive. The History and Philosophy Department of the Communications of the AIS provides such a channel. By providing an avenue to analyze historic events, past successes and failures, and encourage new philosophical thinking for the present and the future, the History and Philosophy Department seeks to achieve what Peter Keen had prognosticated: for the IS field to be at the “forefront of intellectual debate and investigation about the application of IT across every aspect of … society.” With this lofty goal in mind and to encourage a shift towards writing more historical and philosophical research, this editorial describes these two intricately-related genres of research that are distinct from the hypothetico-deductive research crowding the pages of our journals, but perhaps hold the most potential for moving the IS field towards becoming an intellectually and socially influential discipline.

A Conceptual Model for User-System Collaboration: Enhancing Usability of Complex Information Systems

Xu, Jennifer (jxu@bentley.edu); Topi, Heikki


Complex information systems (e.g., Enterprise Resource Planning and Supply Chain Management systems) are used around the world by a wide variety of organizations. However, poor usability caused by system complexity continues to frustrate users and damage the reputation of these systems. This study intends to address usability issues with complex information systems from the human-computer collaboration perspective by modeling user-system interaction as a joint activity between the system and its users. We propose a conceptual model for user-system collaboration, elaborate on the components in the model and the relationships between the components, derive the required capabilities for collaborative information systems, and establish conceptual relationships between system collaborative behaviors and usability. We use empirical evidence gathered from a qualitative field study on ERP systems to illustrate the model and the possible impact of system collaborativeness (i.e., the presence or absence of collaborative capabilities) on usability. Our research objective is to provide a strong conceptual foundation for modeling user-system collaboration and to encourage designers to employ the collaboration metaphor during system design, thus helping them develop future complex information systems with better usability.

An Empirical Assessment of the CIO Role Expectations Instrument Using PLS Path Modelling

Al-Taie, Moyassar (moyassar_z_a@yahoo.com); Lane, Michael; Cater-Steel, Aileen


The validation of Information Systems research instruments has not been given the attention that it deserves. Based on data obtained from 174 Australian CIOs this study uses component-based structural equation modelling (PLS/SEM) to investigate the psychometric properties and possible modelling of the highly-regarded CIO role expectations instrument developed by Smaltz, Sambamurthy and Agarwal. Results show that the CIO role expectations instrument exhibits solid validity and reliability indices despite some minor weaknesses. The results also demonstrate the possibility to model the constructs of this instrument in different null and hierarchical models, and provide further empirical support for the validity of this instrument to measure the CIO role in different countries and different types of industries beyond the USA healthcare sector in which it was developed. The results provide support for CIO role theory on two central issues: CIOs are fulfilling a configuration of roles not just one specific role; and the CIO roles can be grouped into two major categories: supply (operational) side roles and demand (business) side roles.

Personal Health Record Systems as Boundary Objects

George, Joey F. (jfgeorge@iastate.edu); Kohnke, Emily


Personal health record systems are widely available and regarded as a key element of the push for electronic health records and the meaningful use of technology in medicine. However, the adoption and use of these systems has been much lower than anticipated. While there has been research into the reasons for this lack of adoption, there have not been satisfactory answers. We undertook a qualitative research study within a medical clinic setting to investigate these issues. We focus on identifying how the unique user groups who interact with these personal health record systems view their use and impact. We specifically examined three different perspectives on these systems; physician, patient, and medical staff (e.g., nurses, receptionists). We find that personal health record systems are functioning as boundary objects which reflect significantly different meanings to the various user groups who interact with them. Our results show that the patients largely view these systems as non-essential adjuncts to their current care routine, physicians see the systems as tools, and medical staff view them as an additional task or chore with questionable effectiveness. This new conceptualization of these systems as boundary objects has significant implications for their design and use.

Stuck in the Middle: Reflections from the AMCIS Mid-Career Workshop

Petter, Stacie (stacie_petter@baylor.ed); Richardson, Sandra; Randolph, Adriane


Studies often show that mid-career faculty are some of the unhappiest people within academia. Many mid-career faculty have tenure, have more freedom to pursue different types of projects, and have many options ahead. Yet, mid-career faculty members are also dealing with the personal politics that arose during the tenure process, trying to figure out what to do with the newfound freedom, and finding one’s way among the many options in an academic career path. As a junior faculty member, there is often a singular goal: obtaining tenure. As a mid-career faculty member, it’s not just about becoming a “full” professor, but rather figuring out what to do once you have reached this milestone and feeling full in one’s overall career path. This article discusses the challenges associated with being a mid-career faculty member based on research and insights discussed in the Mid-Career Workshop offered at the Americas Conference on Information Systems. We offer examples of how to support mid-career faculty through workshops and mentoring relationships. We also provide insights on how individuals at different career stages can support and understand the challenges among mid-career faculty in information systems.

Understanding Information Privacy Assimilation in IT Organizations using Multi-Site Case Studies

Attili, V S Prakash (PrakashV_S@infosys.com); Mathew, Saji K; Sugumaran, Vijayan


This study develops a framework for understanding the mechanisms of information privacy assimilation in Information Technology (IT) organizations. Following neo-institutional theory, we develop a broad conceptual model and further build a detailed theory by following a multi-site multi-case study covering 18 organizations. This study treats information privacy as a distinct dimension separate from information security. As in the case of information security, senior management support emerged as a mediator between the external influences of coercive, mimetic, and normative forces and information privacy assimilation. Privacy capability emerged as a distinct construct that has a moderating effect on the influence of coercive forces on privacy assimilation. Similarly, cultural acceptability also was posited to moderate the effect of external forces of privacy assimilation. Our study has resulted in a theoretical model that could be empirically tested. The findings would enable senior managers identify and respond to institutional pressures by focusing on appropriate factors within the organization.

Systematic Review of Gamification Research in IS Education: A Multi-Method Approach

Osatuyi, Babajide (babajide.osatuyi@utrgv.edu); Osatuyi, Temidayo; de la Rosa, Ramiro


Gamification is described as the use of game mechanics and game dynamics in non-gaming environments and contexts. Gamification is increasingly gaining attention among system designers across various industries especially in education, due to the benefits associated with its implementation. The adoption of gamification in information systems (IS) education is promising for engaging and motivating students to complete their degree programs. Call for research in this area is particularly on the increase in the IS field. Accordingly, it is imperative to organize the aggregation of research in this area as well as use common terminologies to promote progressive research practice in the field. The research presented in this paper uses a multi-method approach to conduct a systematic review of existing research on gamification in IS education to identify common terminologies, identify trends in topics studied and highlight areas understudied, thus presenting opportunities for future research. The multi-method approach combines classical systematic review method and social network analysis to present additional depth of the knowledge structure of researchers involved in the gamification of IS education. This review also highlights possible interventions that can improve student retention in IS education through the design of effective gamified courses.

The Relationship between Information Systems (IS) Assets, Organizational Capabilities and IS-Enabled Absorptive Capacity in U.S. State Information Technology Departments

Liu, Yi (yl13@my.fsu.edu); Armstrong, Deborah J.; Riemenschneider, Cindy


Despite the recognition that information is a strategic asset for any state government, there is a relative dearth of research on the deployment and use of information systems in the U.S. state government context. Information systems are central for state agencies’ efforts to develop optimal responses to demands from their internal and external constituents. The authors examine how an organization’s specific IS asset combines with prior knowledge to influence organizational capabilities, and the connections between organizational capabilities and the IS-enabled absorptive capacity of U.S. state IT departments from the perspective of IS employees. This study may help researchers and practitioners understand the role of IS assets in forming IS-enabled absorptive capacity within government organizations. Survey data was collected from 417 government IS employees representing 21 different states. The findings indicate that the role of an IS asset depends on the type of asset. Inside-out IS assets (ERP) moderate the relationship between prior knowledge and organizational capabilities while outside-in IS assets (CRM) directly affect organizational capabilities. In addition, organizational capabilities can directly affect IS-enabled absorptive capacity in IT departments. This research increases our understanding of the influence of different IS assets on IS-enabled absorptive capacity in state government IT departments. Limitations and directions for future research are also provided.

Short-term and long-term effects of fear appeals in improving compliance with password guidelines

Mwagwabi, Florence (f.mwagwabi@murdoch.edu.au); McGill, Tanya; Dixon, Mike


Passwords are the most widely used method of authentication on the Internet, but users find compliance with password guidelines difficult and little is known about the long-term effects of attempts to improve compliance. The aim of this paper is to extend the work of fear appeals use in the IS security domain, to investigate longer term effects, identifying that effects may be relatively short lived. We conducted a longitudinal experimental study to examine long and short-term effects of fear appeals. Using a model based on protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1983), we find that compliance is predicted by fear of threat, perceived password effectiveness and password self-efficacy. We also find that neither perceived vulnerability to a security attack nor perceived severity of an attack influences on compliance. Providing persuasive communication improves compliance with password guidelines, resulting in significantly stronger passwords, but the effects on compliance intentions are only short-term. This study extends our understanding of the factors that influence compliance with password guidelines and how we can modify them to improve compliance. We raise interesting questions about the role of fear in different IS security contexts. This study highlights the need for more research on the long-term impact of persuasive communication.

Ranking Factors by Importance in Factorial Survey Analysis

Otondo, Robert F. (bob.otondo@msstate.edu); Crossler, Robert E.; Warkentin, Merrill


Factorial survey analysis is a statistical technique that has long been used in a variety of decision-oriented organizational and information systems (IS) research. A useful statistical outcome of factorial survey analysis is a collection of standardized regression coefficients that facilitate the ranking of survey factors by importance. However, such rankings may be invalid because of the failure to account for two related issues: unequal factor (i.e., dimension) manipulation effect sizes and the inherent multilevel structure of factorial survey data. We address these concomitant issues by demonstrating the ranking problem in simulated datasets, explaining underlying statistical causes, then justifying the use of remediating statistical methods. In particular, we focus on coding proportional to effect, a technique in which corresponding dimension-level dummy (0, 1) variables are consolidated into a single re-calibrated independent variable that is regressed on the dependent variable. The resulting standardized coefficients are then used for factor ranking. We assess the advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of remediation techniques and offer suggestions for future information systems research.