Forthcoming Papers

Forthcoming papers have been accepted for publication at the Communications of the Association for Information Systems and are listed below in order of acceptance date. Copies of unedited manuscripts can be obtained by contacting the corresponding authors listed below.

Note that the decision to provide a copy rests with the authors, not with the Communications of the Association for Information Systems.

The manuscripts listed here will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proofs before they are published in their final form. During the production process errors may be discovered, which could affect the content. All legal disclaimers that apply to the Communications of the Association for Information Systems pertain. For a definitive version of the works listed here, please check for their appearance online at http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/.

Evaluate Enterprise Architecture Frameworks Using Essential Elements

Bui, Quang Neo (quang.neo.bui@gmail.com)


Enterprise architecture (EA) frameworks are principles, models, and guidance to develop an EA program. Due to the flexible and abstract nature of EA, there is a proliferation of EA frameworks in practice. Yet, comparison studies to make sense of them are far from satisfactory, lacking a theoretical foundation for comparison criteria and meaningful interpretation of the differences. This paper proposes a comparison approach using EA essential elements, underlying key features of EA programs, to distinguish EA frameworks. Based on the extant literature, eight elements are identified, each with its own theoretical justification and empirical evidence. We illustrate how to use these elements to evaluate eight popular EA frameworks. The results show three ideal types of EA frameworks: technical, operational, and strategic EA. Each type has different focuses, assumptions, and historical context. The essential elements offer a more systematic way to evaluate EA frameworks. In addition, they shift attention from the maturity models often used in EA development to focus on particular EA elements being implemented by organizations.

Global Ranking of Management- and Clinical-Centered eHealth Journals

Serenko, Alexander (aserenko@lakeheadu.ca); Dohan, Michael S.; Tan, Joseph


This study presents a ranking list of 35 management- and 28 clinical-centered eHealth academic journals developed based on a survey of 398 active researchers from 46 countries. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association and Journal of Medical Internet Research were ranked A+ management-centered journals, and BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making and IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics were given A+ standing among clinical-focused journals. Journal longevity (years in-print) was found to have an effect on ranking scores so that longer standing journals have an advantage over their more recent counterparts, but this effect is only moderately significant and does not guarantee a favorable ranking position. This ranking list may be used by various stakeholders to advance the state of the eHealth discipline. There are both similarities and differences between the present ranking and the one developed earlier in 2010.

A Bring-Your-Own-Device Case for Use in the Classroom

Bierstaker, James (james.bierstaker@villanova.edu); Chung, Q B; Lee, Johnny JiungYee; Sipior, Janice


Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) refers to the use of privately owned mobile devices for employment related activities. This paper presents a real-world case study resource for teaching, based on an actual consulting engagement of a global accounting firm, to bring practical experience with managing BYOD into the classroom. Students, working in teams, assumed the role of consultants and defended their recommendations involving the recognition of benefits and challenges in managing BYOD within an organization. Evaluation of the use of the case study in an undergraduate case competition, judged by professionals from five global accounting firms, shows that in general the students agreed that they had a positive learning experience.

Social Media Exploitation by Covert Networks: A Case Study of ISIS

Freeman, Lee A. (lefreema@umich.edu); Schroeder, Robert; Everton, Sean F.


Social media has quickly become a dominant mode of professional and personal communication. Unfortunately, social media is also used by groups intending to perform illegal and/or harmful activities, including gangs, criminal groups, and terrorist groups. These covert networks utilize social media to foster membership, communicate among followers and non-followers, and obtain ideological and financial support. This exploitation of social media has serious political, cultural, and societal repercussions that go beyond stolen identities, hacked systems, or loss of productivity. There are literal life-and-death consequences of the actions of the groups behind these covert networks. However, through the tracking and analysis of social media content, government agencies (in particular those in the intelligence community) are able to mitigate this threat by uncovering these covert networks, their communication, and their plans. This paper introduces common social media analysis techniques and the current approaches of analyzing covert networks. A case study of the Syrian conflict, with particular attention on ISIS, highlights this exploitation and the process of using social media analysis for intelligence gathering. The results of the case study show that covert networks are resilient and continually adapt their social media use and presence to stay ahead of the intelligence community.

Theorizing Information Systems as Evolving Technology

Swanson, E. Burton (burt.swanson@anderson.ucla.edu)


Information systems scholars have struggled with the field’s fundamental relationship to technology. In particular, they have debated whether the IT artifact is unwisely taken for granted and whether or not it lies at the field’s core. Here, applying Brian Arthur’s general theory of technology, it is suggested that IS may itself be theorized as an evolving family of technologies. From this perspective, new avenues for IS research may be opened up, in particular, for historical and other related studies where the unit of analysis is the technology itself and the focus is its evolution.

Using Embedded Mixed Methods in Studying IS Phenomenon: Risks and Practical Remedies with an Illustration

Yu, Xiaodan (yxd.xiaodanyu@gmail.com); Khazanchi, Deepak


Drawing on lessons learned from a mixed method research project, we illustrate how mixed research approaches are fruitful in studying the complexities and interactions inherent in IS phenomenon. This is particularly relevant in instances where the phenomena under investigation is relatively new and “messy” in that many opportunities for errors and omissions are possible. Mixed method research designs can also prove to be valuable in exploratory or new areas of research and provide empirical evidence from multiple sources and types of data that can be truly triangulated. The key contribution of this paper is a detailed discussion of the risks associated with using a specific mixed method research strategy, embedded mixed method design, and the practical remedies we used to address them. This discussion provides operational guidance to researchers interested in adopting mixed research designs to study emergent IS phenomenon.

Shadow Systems, Risk, and Shifting Power Relations in Organizations

Furstenau, Daniel (daniel.furstenau@fu-berlin.de); Rothe, Hannes; Sandner, Matthias


Drawing on notions of power and the social construction of risk, we build new theory to understand the persistence of shadow systems within organizations. From a single case study in a mid-sized savings bank we derive two feedback cycles that concern shifting power relations between business units and central IT associated with shadow systems. A distant business-IT relationship and changing business needs can create repeated cost and time pressures that make business units draw on shadow systems. The perception of risk can trigger an opposing power shift back through the decommissioning and recentralization of shadow systems. However, empirical findings suggest that the weakening tendency of formal risk management programs may not be sufficient to stop the shadow systems cycle spinning if they fail to address the underlying causes for the emergence of shadow systems. These findings highlight long-term dynamics associated with shadow systems and pose "risk" as a power-shifting construct.

Familiarity with Big Data, Privacy Concerns, and Self-Disclosure Accuracy in Social Networking Websites: An APCO Model

Alashoor, Tawfiq (talashoor1@gsu.edu); Han, Sehee; Joseph, Rhoda C.


Social networking websites have not only become the most prevalent communication tools in today’s digital age but also one of the top big data sources. Big data advocates promote the promising, future benefits of big data applications to both individuals and practitioners. However, public polls show evidence of heightened concerns about privacy among users of social networking websites. We review the privacy literature based on protection motivation theory and theory of planned behavior to develop an APCO model while incorporating novel factors reflecting the users’ familiarity with big data. Using a cross-sectional survey design and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques, our findings provide support for most of the proposed hypotheses. Specifically, we find support for a negative impact of awareness of big data and a positive impact of awareness of big data implications on privacy concerns. Privacy concerns in turn impact self-disclosure concerns positively and self-disclosure accuracy negatively. We also consider other antecedents of privacy concerns and test other alternative models to examine the mediating role of privacy concerns, to control for demographic variables, and to investigate different roles of the trust construct. Finally, we discuss the results of our findings and the theoretical and practical implications.

Explaining Software-as-a-Service Outsourcing: Economic and Social Considerations

Yao, Yurong (yyao@suffolk.edu); Kamis, Arnold A.; Watson, Edward


Software-as-a-service offers an innovative way to deliver software over the Internet to distributed organizations. While more and more SaaS providers are joining the market and competition among providers becomes more intense, it is important to understand the considerations of potential clients. Built on transaction cost theory and social exchange theory, this study empirically investigates, with a national survey of IT/IS executives, the role of economic factors and the impact of social relationships on the economic factors in the SaaS outsourcing decision. It is found that cost savings are a critical consideration in SaaS outsourcing, while social relationships exert a strong, positive direct impact on cost savings and positively moderate the impact of cost savings on SaaS outsourcing. This paper expands our theoretical understanding of the SaaS phenomenon and provides some managerial insights.

Persevere or Exit: What is the Right Strategy?

Bose, Indranil (bose@iimcal.ac.in)


The teaching case describes the telecommunications market of India as it goes through a major transformation due to adoption of mobile telephony. The country with its huge market size and low teledensity provides an attractive opportunity for foreign multinationals. Telenor enters into the Indian market through a joint venture with Unitech Wireless under the brand name of Uninor, and targets the value-conscious segment of mobile customers with its attractive pricing schemes. After a few years of rapid growth, Uninor faces a huge business risk when the Supreme Court of India rules that its purchased spectrum is illegal. The case describes the aftermath of the 2G spectrum scam and how it adversely affects the future of Uninor. At this critical juncture, Telenor faces a strategic decision dilemma. Should it continue its operations in the ever growing Indian mobile market or should it cut its losses and exit before any further damage is done to its global brand? This teaching case imparts important lessons about doing telecommunications related business in an emerging economy where returns are high and business risks immense.

Understanding the Why, What, and How of Theories in IS Research

Mueller, Benjamin (b.mueller@rug.nl); Urbach, Nils


Theory’s pivotal importance has been emphasized in the information systems (IS) discipline since its inception. As in many fields of science, IS scholars’ ability to understand and contribute to theory is an important qualification in research practice. This requires solid foundations for why we engage with theory, what theory is for us, and how we work with theory. We synthesize and reflect on the debates on theories and theorizing in the IS field. Our key contribution is to inform (new) authors of the prevailing state-of-the-art and to help identify opportunities in theorizing to put theory to work. While only a first step, we hope that our synthesis of the status quo advances our discipline’s current efforts towards enhancing theorizing and addressing the increasing demand for theoretical contributions and that it critically reflects on the status quo to help us move beyond it.

The World IT Project: History, Trials, Tribulations, Lessons, and Recommendations

Palvia, Prashant (pcpalvia@uncg.edu); Jacks, Tim F.; Ghosh, Jaideep; Licker, Paul; Romm-Livermore, Celia; Serenko, Alexander; Turan, Aykut H.


The World IT Project, the largest study of its kind in the IS field, was conceived more than a decade ago. This ambitious mega project with an enormous global scale was formally launched in 2013 and is expected to be completed by 2017, with major publications appearing through 2019. The project was in response to the pervasive bias in IS research towards American and Western views. What is glaringly lacking in IS research is a global view that tries to understand the major IS issues in the world in the context of unique cultural, economic, political, religious, and societal environments. The World IT Project captures the organizational, technological, and individual issues of IT employees across the world and relates them to cultural and organizational factors. This first major article provides the objectives and history of the project, its general framework, important decision points, and recommendations for future researchers based on lessons learned from a massive global project. Ultimately, we hope to provide a world view of IT issues that will be relevant to stakeholders at the firm, national, and international levels. We also invite scholars to send their recommendations for the analysis and writing of papers using our vast database.

The Sphere of Influence of Information Systems Journals: A Longitudinal Study

Jiang, Lianlian (Jiangl4@rpi.edu); Jiang, Dan; Grover, Varun


The paper examines the issue of the influence of the Information Systems (IS) field, represented by its key journals. We examine the well-studied topics of cumulative tradition and reference disciplines from two unique perspectives: cohesion and stability. We demarcate journals into “IS journals” as well as “non-IS journals that are receptive to IS work” and examine the sphere of influence of these journals based upon citations over time. Specifically, we compute a log-multiplicative model to identify subareas in the IS field and assess journal influence using the index of structural influence based on citations from a basket of 42 IS and IS-related journals over four periods: 1999-2000, 2004-2005, 2009-2010, and 2013-2014. Results indicate that the IS discipline has established a stable and cohesive knowledge underpinning, which converges with emerging (newer) journals, and diverges with non-IS journals during the late period. These results suggest that the field is developing boundary conditions and a strong cumulative tradition. Furthermore, based on our analysis, pure IS journals gradually gained dominance in their own network and even started to exert influence in the broader network of journals. These findings provide a unique complement to other recent studies that signify the influence of the IS discipline.

Delivering Disruption in an Emergent Access Economy: A Case Study of an E-Hailing Platform

Tan, Felix Ter Chian (f.tan@unsw.edu.au); Tan, Barney; Lu, Anthony; Land, Lesley


The growing adoption of platforms such as Uber and Airbnb has contributed to the emergence of an access economy, disrupting a number of incumbent industries in the process. In this study, we examine goCatch, one of Australia’s largest e-hailing and ride-sharing multi-sided platforms. From our investigations, we find that the technology affordances of multi-sided digital platforms can help to deliver new commercial services and offerings to consumers of the platform, enabling new forms of consumption, and subsequently disrupting the incumbent industry. The findings from our study provide the empirical premise for a model illustrating the role of technology in enabling consumer recognition, consumer engagement and consumer transposition in the context of e-hailing. For theory, we build on extant literature to identify the forms of motivational affordances leveraged in disruptive platforms and technologies. For practice, we conceptualise the function of technology-enabled gamification as an emergent strategy that can be used to induce consumers to change their behaviours, develop their technical skills and drive innovation that plays a central role in enabling digital disruption. This study also clarifies the relationship between technology affordances and value creation against the backdrop of the emergent access economy.

To fear or not to fear? A critical review and analysis of fear appeals in the information security context

Wall Jeffrey D (jdwall@mtu.edu); Buche, Mari W.


Controlling organizational insiders’ security behaviors is an important management concern. Research presents fear appeals as a viable security control to promote protective security behaviors. To date, security-related fear appeals have proven to be effective in controlling insiders’ security behaviors. However, a critical examination of fear appeals provides a different story. Herein, we critically analyze security-related fear appeal research from two ontological positions, critical realism and critical constructivism. The critical realist analysis identifies several issues with existing fear appeal research, which may be caused by particular research traditions. These traditions and issues are explicated in the paper. The critical constructivist analysis draws on critical management studies of control and the work of Foucault to identify the identities, beliefs, and values that fear appeals promote and the ways in which fear appeals create discursive closures that limit the consideration and discussion of other positions. Based on the two analyses, we provide important directions for future fear appeal research.

Using Mechanical Turk Data in IS Research: Risks, Rewards, and Recommendations

Jia, Ronnie (ronniejia@gmail.com); Steelman, Zach; Reich, Blaize Horner


As crowdsourced data are becoming increasingly used in behavioral research disciplines, it is important to examine their appropriateness and desirability for IS research. Extending recent research in the IS literature, this work discusses the risks and rewards of using data gathered on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. We examine the characteristics of MTurk workers and the resulting method biases that may be exacerbated in MTurk data. Based on this analysis, a 2x2 matrix is presented to illustrate the categories of IS research questions that are and are not amenable to MTurk data. We suggest that MTurk data is more appropriate for generalizing studies that examine diverse cognition than for contextualizing studies or those involving shared cognition. Finally, a set of practical recommendations is offered for researchers who wish to collect data on MTurk.

Analyzing Crisis Response through Actor-Network Theory: The Case of Kathmandu Living Labs

Thapa, Devinder (devinder.thapa@uia.no); Budhathoki, Nama; Munkvold, Bjørn Erik


Crisis response is the most critical stage in crisis management where actors make important decisions on mitigating the effects of the crisis. However, the decision-making in such situations is a complex sociotechnical phenomenon. The literature specifies crisis response to include the four steps of observation, interpretation, choice and dissemination, and suggests a sociotechnical approach for analyzing these. However, theoretical guidelines for conducting a sociotechnical analysis of the complexity involved in the crisis response activities are still lacking. To contribute to this knowledge gap, this paper presents an interpretive case study of the role of the Kathmandu Living Labs (KLL) in the response to the Nepal earthquake in 2015. We analyze the case using Actor-Network Theory (ANT), exploring how a social entrepreneur from KLL enrolled different technical and human actors and mobilized them in the crisis response. ANT unfolds the temporal and interdependent role of digital volunteers, local communities and technologies in responding to the crisis, dealing with the challenges of clustering, filtering and verifying large volumes of data in an urgent and evolving crisis situation. The paper demonstrates the usefulness of ANT’s translation process in understanding the complex sociotechnical process of crisis response in disaster events.

Collaboration in Agile Software Development: Concept and Dimensions

Batra, Dinesh (batra@fiu.edu); Xia, Weidong; Zhang, Mingyu


One of the four values listed in the Agile Manifesto emphasizes customer collaboration over contract negotiation; yet, what constitutes customer collaboration and how to assess it has not been explained in the literature. There is limited research on the nature and dimensions of collaboration in the context of agile software development. Based on a grounded theory methodology using interview data collected from five software development outsourcing vendors in China, this study explores the nature and key underlying dimensions of collaboration in agile software development. Five major dimensions of collaboration emerged from our analysis: mutual benefits, engagement, coordination, communication, and knowledge sharing. Each of these dimensions is in turn composed of key sub-dimensions that provide a comprehensive view of collaboration. By revealing the underlying nature and key dimensions, we provide a conceptual basis for operationalizing collaboration that can be employed in future quantitative studies on agility and other project outcomes. Our study results suggest that collaboration in agile software development is multifaceted and mutual occurring in both directions between the customer and the vendor; rather than single-dimensional as indicated by the term “customer” collaboration used in the Agile Manifesto.

A Guide to Text Analysis with Latent Semantic Analysis in R with Annotated Code Studying Online Reviews and the Stack Exchange Community

Gefen, David (gefend@drexel.edu); Endicott, James E.; Fresneda, Jorge E.; Miller, Jake; Larsen, Kai R.


The objective of this guide is to introduce researchers in the behavioral sciences, and MIS in particular, to text analysis as done with Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). The guide contains hands-on annotated code samples in R that walk the reader through a typical process of acquiring relevant texts; creating a semantic space out of them; and then projecting words, phrase, or documents onto that semantic space to calculate their lexical similarities. R is an open source, popular programming language with extensive statistical libraries. The guide introduces LSA as a concept, discusses the process of preparing the data, and its potential as well as limitations. The guide proceeds to demonstrate this process through a sequence of annotated code examples, starting with a study of online reviews that extracts lexical insight about trust. That R code applied singular value decomposition (SVD). The guide next demonstrates a realistically large data analysis of Stack Exchange, a popular Q&A site for programmers. That R code applies an alternative sparse SVD method. All the code and data are available on github.com.

A Taxonomy of Information System Projects’ Knowledge Sharing Mechanisms

Fteimi, Nora (nora.fteimi@uni-passau.de); Cai, Jianxiao; Basten, Dirk


Despite its criticality to the success of information system (IS) projects, knowledge sharing among IS projects is generally ineffective compared to knowledge sharing within IS projects. Although several mechanisms for knowledge sharing exist in the literature, it is difficult to determine which mechanism should be used in a specific context. An attempt to concisely and comprehensively classify these mechanisms remains lacking. Based on a literature review, we extracted information from 33 studies and identified twelve mechanisms for knowledge sharing among IS projects. Then, we derived a taxonomy for these mechanisms, which extends previous research by both adapting existing mechanisms and complementing the set of dimensions used for their classification. The results help to systematically structure the fields of knowledge management and IS projects. Both research and practice can use this taxonomy to better understand knowledge in this domain and effectively adopt mechanisms for a particular application.

An Experimental Investigation of the Individual and Joint Effects of Financial and Non-Financial Incentives on Knowledge Sharing Using Enterprise Social Media

Kettles, Degan (degank@gmail.com); St. Louis, Robert D.;Steinbart, Paul John


Many organizations implement Enterprise Social Media (ESM) in an effort to capture and store valuable knowledge possessed by employees. Unfortunately, more often than not, employees do not make a large number of knowledge contributions. Using agency theory and contingency theory as foundations, this paper examines managerial interventions that can improve knowledge contribution rates in ESM. Specifically, we investigate the individual and joint effects of paying people to share knowledge, providing social cues, and the presence of supporting and policing moderators on knowledge sharing. We further examine how two contingency factors, the nature of an employee’s compensation scheme (variable or fixed) for their primary work task, and the employee’s belief about the importance of sharing knowledge, affect the relative efficacy of the aforementioned managerial interventions. Although we find evidence that being paid to share knowledge and believing that knowledge sharing is inherently important both increase the amount of knowledge shared, our most important results concern the existence of significant interaction effects. For persons that are paid a fixed salary, we find that there is a surprisingly large, positive synergistic effect between being paid to share knowledge and believing that knowledge sharing is important; but that this synergistic effect is almost completely nullified by the introduction of a policing moderator. We discuss the implications of these findings for both practice and research.

Information Systems: A House Divided?

Stewart, Alex (alex.stewart@marquette.edu); Cotton, John L.; Adya, Monica


Is IS a singular field consisting of behavioral (BIS) and technical (TIS) focus? Or is IS really two fields, split between these orientations? Current opinion emphasizes BIS and reinforces the notion that research is practiced in disconnected silos, as opposed to a relatively continuous web. Such silos do disservice to the diversity of scholarly interests, skew productivity expectations in favor of small subsets of journals that often exclude technical and decision science oriented journals, and run the risk of creating self-perpetuating journal groupings. Silos disadvantage IS researchers by making the field narrower in comparison to other business disciplines and contradict the nature of IS pedagogy that equally reflects technology and management. In this study, we apply social network and cross-citation analyses to a sample of 98 IS journals to examine the cohesiveness of IS and to understand the extent to which boundary-spanning journals maintain scholarly connections between the approaches. We distinguish between weak and strong ties among journals and find that a field consisting of both BIS and TIS journals is highly cohesive in terms of weaker ties, and that many boundary-spanning journals are quite balanced in their citations to and from each orientation. We do not, however, find that IS is uniformly cohesive. Despite this, an implication is that IS scholars with different interests can parse out distinct subsets of journals that are central to their interests. We demonstrate this with an examination of the most central journals for three examples of IS scholars: those with a strongly behavioral approach, with sociotechnical interests, and with specialized interests, such as medical informatics. The most central journals for these three interests are distinct subsets of the IS field.

Relevant Research Areas in IT Service Management: An Examination of Academic and Practitioner Literatures

Marrone, Mauricio (mauricio.marrone@mq.edu.au);Hammerle, Mara


Practitioners and academics alike highlight a perceived lack of relevant Information Systems (IS) research, indicating that it may currently be of limited use and value to practitioners. Further, research provides examples of positive links between management practices prevalent in the media and their influence on societal views. This paper seeks to increase relevance of future academic research for practitioners by identifying sources of misalignment between practitioner and academic literatures on the topic of Information Technology Service Management (ITSM) and by developing a possible research agenda to address these misalignments. We do so by employing an entity annotator and keyword analysis to compare the main topics evident in academic and practitioner literatures on ITSM and focus on those salient in practitioner literature. Our results suggest that the topics of framework co-implementation, regulations, ITSM tools and gamification as well as cloud computing all present fertile grounds for relevant research within ITSM and IS more broadly. Our paper thus offers a unique way for academics to understand how they can best assist practitioners while increasing the relevance of academic research.

Multi-Disciplinary Green IT Archival Analysis: A Pathway for Future Studies

Sedera, Darshana (darshana.sedera@gmail.com); Lokuge, Sachithra; Tushi, Bonny; Tan, Felix


With the growth of information technology (IT), there is a growing global concern on the environmental impact of such technologies. As such, research on Green IT is considered as a vibrant theme amongst academics in several research disciplines. While the disparate knowledge within each discipline is gaining substantial momentum, a consolidated multi-disciplinary view of the salient findings of each research disciplines is required for Green IT research to reach its full potential. This paper provides a review of 390 papers published on Green IT between 2007−2015 in three disciplines: Computer Science, Information Systems and Management. The prevailing literature demonstrates the value of this consolidated approach for advancing our understanding on this complex global issue of environmental sustainability. The paper provides an overarching theoretical perspective to consolidate multi-disciplinary findings and then to encourage the information systems researchers to develop an effective cumulative tradition of research.

Contemporary Issues of Open Data in Information Systems Research: Considerations and Recommendations

Link, Georg J.P. (glink@unomaha.edu); Lumbard, Kevin; Conboy, Kieran; Feldman, Michael; Feller, Joseph; George, Jordana; Germonprez, Matt; Goggins Sean; Jeske, Debora; Kiely, Gaye; Schuster, Kristen ; Willis, Matt


Researchers, governments, and funding agencies are calling on research disciplines to embrace open data - data that is publicly accessible and usable beyond the original authors. The premise is that research efforts can draw and generate several benefits from open data, as such data might provide further insight, enabling the replication and extension of current knowledge in different contexts. These potential benefits, coupled with a global push towards open data policies, brings open data into the agenda of research disciplines – including Information Systems (IS). This paper responds to these developments as follows. We outline themes in the ongoing discussion around open data in the IS discipline. The themes fall into two clusters: (1) The motivation for open data includes themes of mandated sharing, benefits to the research process, extending the life of research data, and career impact; (2) The implementation of open data includes themes of governance, socio-technical system, standards, data quality, and ethical considerations. In this paper, we outline the findings from a pre-ICIS 2016 workshop on the topic of open data. The workshop discussion confirmed themes and identified issues that require attention in terms of the approaches that are currently utilized by IS researchers. The IS discipline offers a unique knowledge base, tools, and methods that can advance open data across disciplines. Based on our findings, we provide suggestions on how IS researchers can drive the open data conversation. Further, we provide advice for the adoption and establishment of procedures and guidelines for the archival, evaluation, and use of open data.

How Can Universities Best Encourage Women to Major in Information Systems?

Anderson, Lisa (lisaanderson@gmail.com); Edberg, Dana; Reed, Adam; Simkin, Mark G.; Stiver, Debra


Despite both government and industry initiatives, the under-representation of women in information systems (IS) continues. Can academia help right this imbalance by helping fill the pipeline for technically-qualified female employees? This paper analyzes the results of four experimental interventions based on empirical studies and prior surveys designed to address this issue. We conducted these interventions as projects in an introductory undergraduate IS class in a public university in the western U.S. Sadly, none of them were effective in encouraging more female students to consider majoring in IS.

Literature Reviews in IS Research: What Can Be Learnt from the Past and Other Fields?

Schryen, Guido (schryen@posteo.de); Benlian, Alexander; Rowe, Frantz; Gregor, Shirley; Larsen, Kai; Petter, Stacie; Paré, Guy; Wagner, Gerit; Haag, Steffi; Yasasin, Emrah


Literature reviews (LRs) are recognized for their increasing impact in the information systems literature. Methodologists have drawn attention to the question of how we can leverage the value of LRs to preserve and generate knowledge. The panelists who participated in the discussion of “Standalone Literature Reviews in IS Research: What Can Be Learnt from the Past and Other Fields?” at ICIS 2016 in Dublin acknowledged this significant issue and debated a) what the IS field can learn from other fields and where IS-specific challenges occur, b) how the IS field should move forward to foster the genre of LRs, and c) what best practices are to train doctoral IS students in publishing LRs. This article reports the key takeaways of this panel discussion. Guidance for IS scholars is provided on how to conduct LRs that contribute to the cumulative knowledge development within and across the IS field to best prepare the next generation of IS scholars.

Editorial: The History and Philosophy Department

Hassan, Nik R. (nhassan@d.umn.edu)


Amidst social and political upheavals and economic uncertainties, and the increasingly pivotal role of information and communications technologies, the information systems (IS) field is perfectly positioned to address both their social and technical perspectives. These unique perspectives can be found in the traditions of historical and philosophical articles that have always attracted the attention of IS researchers, but have not been given a formal channel to grow and thrive. The History and Philosophy Department of the Communications of the AIS provides such a channel. By providing an avenue to analyze historic events, past successes and failures, and encourage new philosophical thinking for the present and the future, the History and Philosophy Department seeks to achieve what Peter Keen had prognosticated: for the IS field to be at the “forefront of intellectual debate and investigation about the application of IT across every aspect of … society.” With this lofty goal in mind and to encourage a shift towards writing more historical and philosophical research, this editorial describes these two intricately-related genres of research that are distinct from the hypothetico-deductive research crowding the pages of our journals, but perhaps hold the most potential for moving the IS field towards becoming an intellectually and socially influential discipline.

A Conceptual Model for User-System Collaboration: Enhancing Usability of Complex Information Systems

Xu, Jennifer (jxu@bentley.edu); Topi, Heikki


Complex information systems (e.g., Enterprise Resource Planning and Supply Chain Management systems) are used around the world by a wide variety of organizations. However, poor usability caused by system complexity continues to frustrate users and damage the reputation of these systems. This study intends to address usability issues with complex information systems from the human-computer collaboration perspective by modeling user-system interaction as a joint activity between the system and its users. We propose a conceptual model for user-system collaboration, elaborate on the components in the model and the relationships between the components, derive the required capabilities for collaborative information systems, and establish conceptual relationships between system collaborative behaviors and usability. We use empirical evidence gathered from a qualitative field study on ERP systems to illustrate the model and the possible impact of system collaborativeness (i.e., the presence or absence of collaborative capabilities) on usability. Our research objective is to provide a strong conceptual foundation for modeling user-system collaboration and to encourage designers to employ the collaboration metaphor during system design, thus helping them develop future complex information systems with better usability.