Forthcoming papers have been accepted for publication at the Communications of the Association for Information Systems and are listed below in order of acceptance date. Copies of unedited manuscripts can be obtained by contacting the corresponding authors listed below.
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An Empirical Assessment of the CIO Role Expectations Instrument Using PLS Path Modelling
Al-Taie, Moyassar (email@example.com); Lane, Michael; Cater-Steel, Aileen
The validation of Information Systems research instruments has not been given the attention that it deserves. Based on data obtained from 174 Australian CIOs this study uses component-based structural equation modelling (PLS/SEM) to investigate the psychometric properties and possible modelling of the highly-regarded CIO role expectations instrument developed by Smaltz, Sambamurthy and Agarwal. Results show that the CIO role expectations instrument exhibits solid validity and reliability indices despite some minor weaknesses. The results also demonstrate the possibility to model the constructs of this instrument in different null and hierarchical models, and provide further empirical support for the validity of this instrument to measure the CIO role in different countries and different types of industries beyond the USA healthcare sector in which it was developed. The results provide support for CIO role theory on two central issues: CIOs are fulfilling a configuration of roles not just one specific role; and the CIO roles can be grouped into two major categories: supply (operational) side roles and demand (business) side roles.
Personal Health Record Systems as Boundary Objects
George, Joey F. (firstname.lastname@example.org); Kohnke, Emily
Personal health record systems are widely available and regarded as a key element of the push for electronic health records and the meaningful use of technology in medicine. However, the adoption and use of these systems has been much lower than anticipated. While there has been research into the reasons for this lack of adoption, there have not been satisfactory answers. We undertook a qualitative research study within a medical clinic setting to investigate these issues. We focus on identifying how the unique user groups who interact with these personal health record systems view their use and impact. We specifically examined three different perspectives on these systems; physician, patient, and medical staff (e.g., nurses, receptionists). We find that personal health record systems are functioning as boundary objects which reflect significantly different meanings to the various user groups who interact with them. Our results show that the patients largely view these systems as non-essential adjuncts to their current care routine, physicians see the systems as tools, and medical staff view them as an additional task or chore with questionable effectiveness. This new conceptualization of these systems as boundary objects has significant implications for their design and use.
Stuck in the Middle: Reflections from the AMCIS Mid-Career Workshop
Petter, Stacie (email@example.com); Richardson, Sandra; Randolph, Adriane
Studies often show that mid-career faculty are some of the unhappiest people within academia. Many mid-career faculty have tenure, have more freedom to pursue different types of projects, and have many options ahead. Yet, mid-career faculty members are also dealing with the personal politics that arose during the tenure process, trying to figure out what to do with the newfound freedom, and finding one’s way among the many options in an academic career path. As a junior faculty member, there is often a singular goal: obtaining tenure. As a mid-career faculty member, it’s not just about becoming a “full” professor, but rather figuring out what to do once you have reached this milestone and feeling full in one’s overall career path. This article discusses the challenges associated with being a mid-career faculty member based on research and insights discussed in the Mid-Career Workshop offered at the Americas Conference on Information Systems. We offer examples of how to support mid-career faculty through workshops and mentoring relationships. We also provide insights on how individuals at different career stages can support and understand the challenges among mid-career faculty in information systems.
Understanding Information Privacy Assimilation in IT Organizations using Multi-Site Case Studies
Attili, V S Prakash (PrakashV_S@infosys.com); Mathew, Saji K; Sugumaran, Vijayan
This study develops a framework for understanding the mechanisms of information privacy assimilation in Information Technology (IT) organizations. Following neo-institutional theory, we develop a broad conceptual model and further build a detailed theory by following a multi-site multi-case study covering 18 organizations. This study treats information privacy as a distinct dimension separate from information security. As in the case of information security, senior management support emerged as a mediator between the external influences of coercive, mimetic, and normative forces and information privacy assimilation. Privacy capability emerged as a distinct construct that has a moderating effect on the influence of coercive forces on privacy assimilation. Similarly, cultural acceptability also was posited to moderate the effect of external forces of privacy assimilation. Our study has resulted in a theoretical model that could be empirically tested. The findings would enable senior managers identify and respond to institutional pressures by focusing on appropriate factors within the organization.
Systematic Review of Gamification Research in IS Education: A Multi-Method Approach
Osatuyi, Babajide (firstname.lastname@example.org); Osatuyi, Temidayo; de la Rosa, Ramiro
Gamification is described as the use of game mechanics and game dynamics in non-gaming environments and contexts. Gamification is increasingly gaining attention among system designers across various industries especially in education, due to the benefits associated with its implementation. The adoption of gamification in information systems (IS) education is promising for engaging and motivating students to complete their degree programs. Call for research in this area is particularly on the increase in the IS field. Accordingly, it is imperative to organize the aggregation of research in this area as well as use common terminologies to promote progressive research practice in the field. The research presented in this paper uses a multi-method approach to conduct a systematic review of existing research on gamification in IS education to identify common terminologies, identify trends in topics studied and highlight areas understudied, thus presenting opportunities for future research. The multi-method approach combines classical systematic review method and social network analysis to present additional depth of the knowledge structure of researchers involved in the gamification of IS education. This review also highlights possible interventions that can improve student retention in IS education through the design of effective gamified courses.
The Relationship between Information Systems (IS) Assets, Organizational Capabilities and IS-Enabled Absorptive Capacity in U.S. State Information Technology Departments
Liu, Yi (email@example.com); Armstrong, Deborah J.; Riemenschneider, Cindy
Despite the recognition that information is a strategic asset for any state government, there is a relative dearth of research on the deployment and use of information systems in the U.S. state government context. Information systems are central for state agencies’ efforts to develop optimal responses to demands from their internal and external constituents. The authors examine how an organization’s specific IS asset combines with prior knowledge to influence organizational capabilities, and the connections between organizational capabilities and the IS-enabled absorptive capacity of U.S. state IT departments from the perspective of IS employees. This study may help researchers and practitioners understand the role of IS assets in forming IS-enabled absorptive capacity within government organizations. Survey data was collected from 417 government IS employees representing 21 different states. The findings indicate that the role of an IS asset depends on the type of asset. Inside-out IS assets (ERP) moderate the relationship between prior knowledge and organizational capabilities while outside-in IS assets (CRM) directly affect organizational capabilities. In addition, organizational capabilities can directly affect IS-enabled absorptive capacity in IT departments. This research increases our understanding of the influence of different IS assets on IS-enabled absorptive capacity in state government IT departments. Limitations and directions for future research are also provided.
Short-term and long-term effects of fear appeals in improving compliance with password guidelines
Mwagwabi, Florence (firstname.lastname@example.org); McGill, Tanya; Dixon, Mike
Passwords are the most widely used method of authentication on the Internet, but users find compliance with password guidelines difficult and little is known about the long-term effects of attempts to improve compliance. The aim of this paper is to extend the work of fear appeals use in the IS security domain, to investigate longer term effects, identifying that effects may be relatively short lived. We conducted a longitudinal experimental study to examine long and short-term effects of fear appeals. Using a model based on protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1983), we find that compliance is predicted by fear of threat, perceived password effectiveness and password self-efficacy. We also find that neither perceived vulnerability to a security attack nor perceived severity of an attack influences on compliance. Providing persuasive communication improves compliance with password guidelines, resulting in significantly stronger passwords, but the effects on compliance intentions are only short-term. This study extends our understanding of the factors that influence compliance with password guidelines and how we can modify them to improve compliance. We raise interesting questions about the role of fear in different IS security contexts. This study highlights the need for more research on the long-term impact of persuasive communication.
Ranking Factors by Importance in Factorial Survey Analysis
Otondo, Robert F. (email@example.com); Crossler, Robert E.; Warkentin, Merrill
Factorial survey analysis is a statistical technique that has long been used in a variety of decision-oriented organizational and information systems (IS) research. A useful statistical outcome of factorial survey analysis is a collection of standardized regression coefficients that facilitate the ranking of survey factors by importance. However, such rankings may be invalid because of the failure to account for two related issues: unequal factor (i.e., dimension) manipulation effect sizes and the inherent multilevel structure of factorial survey data. We address these concomitant issues by demonstrating the ranking problem in simulated datasets, explaining underlying statistical causes, then justifying the use of remediating statistical methods. In particular, we focus on coding proportional to effect, a technique in which corresponding dimension-level dummy (0, 1) variables are consolidated into a single re-calibrated independent variable that is regressed on the dependent variable. The resulting standardized coefficients are then used for factor ranking. We assess the advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of remediation techniques and offer suggestions for future information systems research.
System Interaction Theory: Describing Interactions between Work Systems
Alter, Steven (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Interactions between systems are a necessity, a source of opportunity, and a source of difficulty and complication in building, implementing, and maintaining IT-reliant systems in organizations. This paper presents system interaction theory (SINT), a theory for analysis that covers almost all intentional and unintentional interactions between work systems that may be sociotechnical or totally automated. SINT is a broadly applicable theory that encompasses interactions between the types of systems that are central to the IS discipline. To minimize redundancy, this paper summarizes SINT immediately after introducing the research question, thereby providing a context for the many distinctions and references that follow. A discussion of SINT’s domain and scope explains why SINT views interacting entities as work systems rather than as tasks, components, or software modules. The literature review positions SINT in relation to topics under headings ranging from general systems theory and computer science to human computer interaction and organization science. Topics within SINT include relevant characteristics of systems and system interactions, purposes and/or causes of system interactions, system interaction patterns, direct effects of system interactions, responses to direct effects, and outcomes related to system interactions. A variety of potential contributions to theory, practice, and research are discussed.
Investigating the Relationship Between Business Analysts’ Competencies and IS Requirements Elicitation: A Thematic Analysis Approach
Babar, Abdul (Abdul.email@example.com); Bunker, Deborah; Gill, Asif
Poor requirements elicitation (RE) has consistently been reported as one of the major reasons for information system (IS) project failures. In the last two decades, RE research and practice have focused predominantly on the development of tools and techniques for business analysts (BAs) to use and improve RE, however, very little focus has been directed on the importance of the competencies of the BAs involved in RE. This research investigated the relationship between the BAs’ competencies and RE through an exploratory study. A thematic network analysis approach, along with the four-stage qualitative data analysis process, was applied to discover four business view and six system view themes, and their relationships to BAs’ competencies. The results of this study indicate that the performance of the BAs, from three categories of competencies, in terms of the selection of stakeholders’ viewpoints and the collection of requirements from those viewpoints was equivalent, however senior BAs focused more on high level requirements than the low level technical requirements of the system. The results suggest that the competencies of the BAs play a significant role in RE, and clearly defined competencies of BAs can help organizations to identify the right BA for the right job.
Exploring Foundations for Using Simulations in IS Research
Spagnoletti, Paolo (firstname.lastname@example.org); Za, Stefano; Winter, Robert ; Mettler, Tobias
Simulation has been adopted in many disciplines as a means for understanding the behavior of a system by imitating it through an artificial object that exhibits a nearly identical behavior. Although simulation approaches have been widely adopted for theory building in disciplines such as engineering, computer science, management, and social sciences, their potential in the IS field is often overlooked. The aim of this paper is to understand how different simulation approaches are used in IS research, thereby providing insights and methodological recommendations for future studies. A literature review of simulation studies published in top-tier IS journals leads to the definition of three classes of simulations, namely the self-organizing, the elementary, and the situated. A set of stylized facts is identified for characterizing the ways in which the premise, the inference, and the contribution are presented in IS simulation studies. As a result, this study provides guidance to future simulation researchers in designing and presenting findings.
Identifying Issues for the Bright ICT Initiative: A World-Wide Delphi Study of IS Journal Editors and Scholars
Lee, Jungwoo (email@example.com); Fedorowicz, Jane
Information and communication technologies (ICT) are changing the horizon of modern business. As ICT becomes an integral part of daily living, there are also increasing opportunities for the technology to both help and hinder fundamental social problems throughout the world. In response to these growing and urgent societal needs, the Association for Information Systems approved the Bright ICT Initiative to extend IS research beyond a focus on business to take on the broader challenges of an ICT-enabled Bright Society. A Delphi study was recently conducted to provide guidance on where Bright ICT-minded researchers might focus to produce their greatest impact. This paper reports on the findings of this Delphi study conducted to determine research needs in IS research related to this broader topic. The Delphi panel consisted of 182 globally distributed IS journal editors who participated in a three-round consensus-building process via the Internet. The results of this study provide a framework of eleven research priority areas and specific research topics for those engaged in future-oriented, socially-conscious IS research.
Revisiting Sprague’s Framework for Developing Decision Support Systems
Watson, Hugh J. (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Ralph H. Sprague, Jr. was a leader in the MIS field and helped develop the conceptual foundation for decision support systems (DSS). This paper pays homage to Sprague and his DSS contributions. It takes a personal perspective based on the author’s years of working with Ralph. The history of DSS and its evolution are explored. Sprague’s DSS development framework, with its dialog, data, and models (DDM) paradigm and characteristics, is presented and discussed. At its core, the development framework remains valid in today’s world of business intelligence and big data analytics. A contemporary reference architecture for business intelligence and analytics (BI/A) is presented and discussed in the context of Sprague’s DSS development framework. The practice of decision support continues to evolve and can be described by a maturity model, with DSS, enterprise data warehousing, real-time data warehousing, big data analytics, and the emerging cognitive, as successive generations. A DSS perspective is used to describe and provide examples of what the forthcoming cognitive generation will bring.
Individual Determinants of IT Occupational Outcomes
ElMasri, Mazen (email@example.com); Al-Yafi, Karim; Addas, Shamel; Tarhini, Ali
Extant research in information systems relies heavily on career anchor theory (CAS) as a lens to examine occupational choices and outcomes in information technology. Yet, the empirical results are inconclusive and the power of the theory in predicting IT occupations is rather weak. With the growing demand for IT professionals, it becomes imperative to examine other factors that can predict the IT occupational outcomes. In this paper, we draw on social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and examine self-efficacy as a complementary factor to career anchors in predicting whether seekers end up with technical, business, or managerial occupations in IT. Specifically, we propose and test a model that combines variables from both CAS and SCCT theories. Multiple discriminant analysis was used to measure the extent to which variables from both theories discriminates between the IT occupations. The results show that our model predicts occupations with an accuracy rate of 82.2% (compared to 75.2% of the original CAS model). Our results also show that individuals who hold a professional role that matches their profile are more satisfied than those who do not. Lastly, we discovered that, from individuals who hold a position that does not match their profile, business-IT professionals are most satisfied.
Fujisawa Sustainable Smart Town: Panasonic’s challenge towards building a sustainable society
Sakurai, Mihoko (firstname.lastname@example.org); Kokuryo, Jiro
Urban utility equipment and electronic goods manufacturers are experiencing profound challenges in this age of rapid technological change. Panasonic, Japan’s leading electronics company, also recognized the limits of its traditional product manufacturing orientation and decided to enter IT-intensive town management in view of these challenges. It advanced a new strategy for the creation of sustainable communities which would encourage the involvement of both stakeholders and local residents. The stress being on sustainability, the strategy has adopted a long-term perspective, i.e., a 100-year time frame. Significantly, it must provide values which foster community-based sustainability while also adopting a business model which ensures the economic viability of both construction of the town and its ongoing service management. As information systems play a big part in the provision of services within the new town, the strategy requires the linking of information with technology and social aspects, quite unlike traditional manufacturing, which is solely based on technology concerns. As part of its new strategy, Panasonic defined five prominent service areas, i.e. energy, security, mobility, wellness and community. These areas were thought to expand and generate new value and services throughout the time frame.
Winning Awards or Winning Citations: A Retrospective Look at the Consistency Between Evaluative Metrics
Dutchak, Iaroslava (email@example.com); Tseng, Shih-Lun; Grover, Varun
The appropriate evaluation of Information Systems research articles is fundamental to the viability of our institutions and review processes. In the short run, the highest value is assessed through research awards, while in the longer term assessment of research value could be based on how the research community sees and draws from a published research article. In this study, we examine the consistency of two metrics for assessment of research value, one based on the best current and anticipated assessment to the field’s knowledge, and the other based on the actual use of the research in future work. The high end of former is done through research awards and the latter – by citations to the work. In this study, we focus on a premier journal, MIS Quarterly, and find that rarely are “papers of the year” the ones cited the most. We offer possible explanations for this discrepancy based on an assessment of originality and utility of articles, as well as patterns of their citations.
How Design Science Research Helps Improve Learning Efficiency in Online Conversations
Eryilmaz, Evren (firstname.lastname@example.org); Thoms, Brian; Canelon, Jesus
This design science research reports on the construction and evaluation of an attention guidance system integrated into a computer-supported collaborative learning system. Drawing on social constructivist literature, our proposed design aims to attract, retain, and, if necessary, reacquire users’ attention on task-relevant information within online collaborative literature processing. The investigation involved an experiment across two sections of students taking a human-computer interaction course. Results show that the new design allowed users to consistently reflect and evaluate the content of a text as they capitalized on each other’s reasoning to resolve misconceptions. Moreover, we found that the new system increased users’ perceptions of learning. However, the difference in knowledge gain scores was marginally significant and represented a medium effect size. Interestingly, we found that the attention guidance system support more efficient learning. Finally, we discovered that task-oriented reading of text, revision of incomplete or incorrect ideas, and perceptions of learning mediated the relationship between software system and learning efficiency. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.
Antecedent and Outcomes of Extent of ERP Systems Implementation in the Sub-Saharan Africa Context: A Panoptic Perspective
Asamoah, David (email@example.com); Andoh-Baidoo, Francis Kofi
Most research on the impact of Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems implementation on business process outcomes have focused on developed nations. However, Sub-Saharan Africa, a developing region, is a growing ERP market and provides a new context for theory development. This study examines the antecedent and outcomes of extent of ERP systems implementation in Sub Saharan Africa. The study specifically examines three research questions: (1) How does an organization’s data culture influence the extent of ERP implementation? (2) How does the extent of ERP implementation influence the ethical behavior and data integration of the organization? and (3) How do the ethical behavior and organizational integration influence the business process outcomes? The panoptic concept was used as a theoretical lens to develop a research model and six hypotheses to answer the research questions. The model was tested by using the survey methodology to collect data from 115 firms that have implemented ERP systems and operate in thirteen industries in Ghana, a Sub-Saharan Africa nation. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the data. All the six hypotheses were confirmed. This paper offers both theoretical and managerial implications.
Exploring Divergent and Convergent Production in Idea Evaluation: Implications for Designing Group Creativity Support Systems
Ulrich, Frank (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Idea evaluation is necessary for most modern organizations to identify the value of novel ideas. However, current idea evaluation research and practice hinder creativity by primarily facilitating convergent production (narrowing down ideas to a few tangible solutions), whereas divergent production (the development of wildly creative and novel thoughts patterns) is discounted. In this article, this dominant view on idea evaluation is challenged by presenting a new theory coined as dynamic idea evaluation and exploring the theory through a Group Creativity Support System (GCSS) prototype. The GCSS prototype is designed as an idea portal that uses the knowledge created from the evaluation process to facilitate both convergent and divergent production. The GCSS is designed using an inductive and theory-building Design Science Research (DSR) approach and interpretively analyzed through an exploratory study in a Danish IS research department. Consequently, the GCSS demonstrates the ability to facilitate both divergent and convergent production during idea evaluation. Moreover, four design requirements and process architecture are added to help designers to build dynamic idea evaluation into this class of systems.
A Knowledge Management Approach for Assisting in Identifying Victims of Human Sex Trafficking
Jennex, Murray E. (email@example.com)
Social media and the interactive web have enabled human traffickers to lure victims and then sell them faster and in greater safety than ever before. However, these same tools have also enabled investigators in their search for victims and criminals. This study uses system development action research methodology to create and apply a prototype designed to identify victims of human sex trafficking by analyzing online ads. The prototype used a knowledge management approach of generating actionable intelligence by applying a set of strong filters based on an ontology to identify potential victims. The prototype was used to analyze a data set generated from online ads. The results of this process were used to generate a revised prototype that included the use of machine learning and text mining enhancements. The revised prototype was used to identify potential victims in a second data set. The results of applying the prototypes suggest a viable approach to identifying victims of human sex trafficking in online ads.
Pragmatizing the Normative Artifact: Design Science Research in Scandinavia and Beyond
Ågerfalk, Pär J. (firstname.lastname@example.org)
This panel report analyses the discussion that unfolded during the panel “Design Science Research: A Scandinavian Approach?”, held at the 3rd Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems in Sigtuna, Sweden, August 2012. The Panel was chaired by the second author of this paper and included panelists: Tone Bratteteig, Shirley Gregor, Ola Henfridsson, Alan Hevner, Jan Pries-Heje, and Tuure Tuunanen. Three themes that highlight how the design of artifacts contributes to knowledge production emerged during the panel. The first theme addresses our responsibility, as a research community, to come up not only with descriptions of the world but also to try to change things into preferable states. The second theme emphasizes that knowledge production also happens through the design of artifacts. The third theme identifies an apparent pragmatic turn in our field.
Why Users Switch Mobile Applications? Trialing Behavior as a Predecessor of Switching Behavior
Salo, Markus (email@example.com)
Mobile application providers face high user losses because it is extremely easy and common for users to switch to an alternative application. Researchers have recently started to study information technology (IT) switching. However, no studies have concentrated on the unique context of mobile applications. Mobile application switching differs from the switching behavior related to many other IT products and services because of the highlighted role of alternatives, beta versions, updates, reviews, and users’ spontaneous behavior. To address this gap, we develop a mobile-specific model by using a qualitative research approach. As a theoretical contribution, we introduce trialing behavior as a predecessor of switching behavior and present six new behavioral antecedents for them. As practical implications, we suggest ways for mobile application providers and developers to reduce user churn.
Is Information Systems a Science?
McBride, Neil (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The information systems discipline has been compared with the physical and biological sciences, suggesting that information systems sits in the same academic space as physical and natural sciences. This suggestion supported by the language and perception expressed in journals such as the Transactions for Replication Research, which refer to “scientific consensus” and the involvement of information systems researchers in “the quest for scientific advancement”. This paper suggests that the view that information systems is a science in which general laws can be developed through the application of statistical surveys, laboratory experiments run and expressed as mathematical equations has negatively affected the development of information systems. It is argued that the nature of information systems is such that it cannot be pitched as a science. Following a brief discussion of the motivation and philosophy that might underlie the perception of information systems as a science, an alternative view of information systems is offered as a deep, complex and multi-layered discipline within the humanities. Dance studies is proposed as an appropriate discipline to twin with information systems. The paper ends with a call for the remobilizing of information systems, the positioning of information systems as a social humanity.
Social Media for Empowerment in Social Movements: The Case of Malaysia's Grassroots Activism
Leong, Carmen (email@example.com)
Social media plays an instrumental role in enabling and facilitating social movements. This role of social media is contingent on the complex social issues in a civic community and dynamics of power within movement politics. Existing literature provides little insight into the formative role of social media in social movements, tending towards the informational role and episodic effect of social media in community activism instead. We present the case of Bersih, a social media-enabled social movement pushing for electoral reform in Malaysia. The non-partisan community-driven movement exerted public pressure on institutions and has gained formal recognition. The study reveals the significant role social media plays in empowering citizens by enabling them to facilitate and coordinate collective action towards producing change within their community. This research is significant in articulating the precise nature of the role of ICT in addressing complex social problems.
The Social Structure of the Information Systems Collaboration Network: Centers of Influence and Antecedents of Tie Formation
Chipidza, Wallace (firstname.lastname@example.org)
This study examines the historical information systems research collaboration network. We build the network using coauthorship information in the Senior Scholars’ basket of eight journals from the publication of MISQ’s first issue in April 1977 to November 2015. The different journals vary widely in their network configurations. We examine the influence of gender homophily, geographic homophily, as well as field tenure heterophily on coauthorship in the network. Using exponential random graph modeling (ERGM) on a randomly selected subset of the network, preliminary evidence suggests that ties in the IS collaboration network exhibit homophily according to gender and geography. Conversely, coauthorship seems to exhibit heterophily along the temporal dimension – short-tenured researchers in the field prefer collaborating with long-tenured researchers. ERGM enables making statistical inferences concerning the influence of node attributes and structural variables on network formation, which is hard to do with logistical regression because network relationships violate the independence of observations assumption. We also reveal the current center of the IS collaboration network. Based on this center, we propose a metric to measure a researcher’s connectedness within the network.
Lenovo: Being on Top in a Declining Industry
Zwanenburg, Sander P. (email@example.com)
For the first time since the 2008 financial crisis, Lenovo, the world’s largest PC maker, not only had failed to increase its revenues and profits, but had a net loss. Lenovo’s market share was still growing, but the PC market itself was shrinking about 5% annually. Lenovo hoped to broaden its leadership toward smaller computing devices, which market had seen more growth. It had purchased Motorola Mobility in 2014 and continued to invest in its smartphone business through branding and innovation. Yet in 2016, this business did not make a profit and only grew in some geographical markets. Lenovo faced fierce competition from giants like Apple and Samsung and from Chinese manufacturers that had quickly grown in market share. How could Lenovo reignite growth and sustain its position as a global industry leader?