Forthcoming Papers

Forthcoming papers have been accepted for publication at the Communications of the Association for Information Systems and are listed below in order of acceptance date. Copies of unedited manuscripts can be obtained by contacting the corresponding authors listed below.

Note that the decision to provide a copy rests with the authors, not with the Communications of the Association for Information Systems.

The manuscripts listed here will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proofs before they are published in their final form. During the production process errors may be discovered, which could affect the content. All legal disclaimers that apply to the Communications of the Association for Information Systems pertain. For a definitive version of the works listed here, please check for their appearance online at http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/.

Noise or Quality? Cross-Nested Hierarchical Effects of Culture on Online Ratings

Mattson, Thomas (tmattson@richmond.edu)


Previous feedback system research in a variety of contexts focuses on the impact that ratings (as proxies for quality) have on a variety of social and economic outcomes with equivocal findings. These mixed findings may be partially due to noise (factors not related to quality) embedded in aggregated or average positive and negative ratings. One significant source of ratings noise may come from culturally diverse raters issuing ratings in virtual environments. Culture impacts how groups of individuals are socialized to behave and think, which may result in having different attitudes towards publicly downgrading (negative ratings) or praising (positive ratings) other members in the feedback system. This paper investigates how culture impacts rating practices specifically within public electronic knowledge sharing communities. Using a cross-nested hierarchical linear model, this paper empirically demonstrates that cultural differences at the community, occupation, and national levels interact in unique ways to increase or decrease the propensity to give and receive a positive or a negative rating. This study contributes to the literature on rating systems along with having practical ramifications for the designers of feedback systems.

Cognitive Feedforward and Feedback as Substitutes for Conscientiousness

McCreless, Tamuchin (tam.mccreless@nku.edu); Goul, Michael; Louis, Robert St.; Warner, Megan


This study explores the impact of feedback, feedforward, and personality on computer-mediated behavior change. The impacts of the effects were studied using subjects who entered information relevant to their diet and exercise into a database through an online tool. Subjects were divided into four experimental groups: those receiving only feedback, those receiving only feedforward, those receiving both feedback and feedforward, and those receiving neither feedback nor feedforward. Results indicate that both feedforward and feedback impact behavior change, but the effect is much greater for individuals ranking low in conscientiousness than for individuals with high conscientiousness. In fact, the magnitude of the effect of feedforward and feedback is very nearly the same as the magnitude of the effect of conscientiousness.

The Light and Dark Side of the Black Box: Sensor-Based Technology in the Automotive Industry

Marco Marabelli (mmarabelli@bentley.edu) , Marco; Hansen, Sean; Newell, Sue; Frigerio, Chiara


Sensor-based technologies are increasingly integrated into diverse aspects of our everyday lives. Despite the importance of understanding how these technologies are adopted and exploited by businesses and consumers, the information systems (IS) community has thus far devoted relatively little attention to the topic. Accordingly, our objective in this paper is to foster an exploration of the issue amongst IS scholars by focusing on the emergent use of sensor-based technologies in the automotive insurance industry. Insurance providers are increasingly turning to such technologies to gain competitive advantage around risk assessment and behavior-based pricing. To investigate this phenomenon, we consider the experiences of two organizations operating distinct national contexts – Progressive Insurance (US) and Generali (Italy). These two insurance providers have been first movers in the adoption of sensor-based technologies for risk assessment and policy pricing. First, we highlight the key similarities and differences between the cases with regard to the technologies adopted, business models pursued, and anticipated benefits and pitfalls for the companies and their consumers. Second, in a more holistic way we discuss the implications and unintended consequences of sensor-based technologies in the automotive insurance industry. We formulate several research questions that will provide opportunities and encourage more research in this emerging area of study.

Technostress Research: A Nurturing Ground for Measurement Pluralism?

Fischer, Thomas (thomas.fischer@fh-steyr.at); Riedl, René


Because technostress research is multidisciplinary in nature and therefore benefits from insights gained from various research disciplines, we expected a high degree of measurement pluralism in technostress studies published in the Information Systems (IS) literature. However, because IS research, in general, mostly relies on self-report measures, there is also reason to assume that multi-method research designs have been largely neglected in technostress research. To assess the status quo of technostress research with respect to the application of multi-method approaches, we analyzed 103 empirical studies. Specifically, we analyzed the types of data collection methods used and the investigated components of the technostress process (person, environment, stressors, strains, and coping). The results indicate that multi-method research is more prevalent in the IS technostress literature (approximately 37% of reviewed studies) than in the general IS literature (approximately 20% as reported in previous reviews). However, our findings also show that IS technostress studies significantly rely on self-report measures. We argue that technostress research constitutes a nurturing ground for the application of multi-method approaches and multidisciplinary collaboration.

Towards a Decomposed Expectation-Confirmation Model of IT Continuance: The Role of Usability

Islam, Najmul (najmul.islam@utu.fi); Mantymaki, Matti; Bhattacherjee, Anol


We propose a decomposed expectation-confirmation model of IT continuance by (1) decomposing user expectation and confirmation into two dimensions of usefulness and usability, (2) conceptualizing the role of usability in IT continuance research, and (3) exploring changes in user perceptions of usability and usefulness over time and their impacts on user satisfaction and continuance intention. The proposed research model was tested using longitudinal data, collected in two points in time six-months apart, from 125 users of the LinkedIn professional social networking site (pSNS). The results show that (1) user satisfaction with pSNS is determined by perceived usability, usability confirmation, perceived usefulness, and usefulness confirmation, and (2) perceived usability along with satisfaction predict continuance intention whereas perceived usefulness has no effect. This study contributes IT Continuance research by (1) proposing and empirically validating a decomposed model of IT continuance, and (2) by bringing in usability as a core construct of interest for IT continuance research.

Course design based on Enhanced Intercultural Transformation Theory (EITT): Transforming INFORMATION SYSTEMS (IS) students into inventors during academic exchange

Sivakumar, Chitra (csivakum-c@my.cityu.edu.hk); Kwok, Ron C.W.


In this paper, we propose the Enhanced Intercultural Transformation Theory (EITT) with additional factors (i.e. support and motivation) as an extension to the existing Intercultural Transformation Theory (ITT). Based on the EITT, we propose a three-phased (i.e. learner, explorer and inventor) framework of an Exchange Experience Assessment (EEA) course with all five EITT factors (i.e. stress, adaptation, growth, support and motivation) interfaced with three stakeholders (i.e. student, patent advisor and instructor). Also, we report the design of the EEA course and its implementation in a University. The collected data confirmed our proposed EITT and EEA course framework that helped transforming Information Systems (IS) students into inventors. We found that students were able to develop patentable inventions through the stress-adaptation-growth process during their academic exchanges, but appropriate support and motivation by the patent advisor and instructor are required. Our findings can enable any interested faculty in any university to attempt offering a similar course for the benefit of budding undergraduate inventors during academic exchange.

Strategic Alignment in SMEs: Strengthening Theoretical Foundations

Street, Chris (chris.street@uregina.ca); Gallupe, R. Brent; Baker, Jeff


Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) are a vital part of the global economy, composing the vast majority of all businesses worldwide. In spite of the importance of these firms, they remain understudied in strategic alignment research. In this paper, we endeavor to consolidate and then extend the IS literature on strategic alignment in SMEs. We develop a set of theoretical propositions that outline the ways in which the unique characteristics of SMEs affect the ability of these firms to achieve and sustain alignment between their IS/IT strategy and their overall business strategy. In some respects, SMEs are able to achieve and sustain alignment as do larger firms, while in other respects they differ noticeably. Each of our propositions is grounded in the dynamic capabilities framework and is intended to strengthen the theoretical foundations of strategic alignment research, particularly in SMEs. We discuss the implications of our propositions and note theoretical issues emerging from the study of strategic alignment in the SME context.

The Linkage between Conferences and Journals in the Information Systems Field: Observations and Recommendations

Zhang, Ping (pzhang@syr.edu) and Niederman, Fred


The advice younger scholars often receive is to submit work to conferences for feedback and polishing in anticipation of later submission for journal publication. But is this a normal practice? What do the IS scholars really think or do about the linkage between conferences and journals? What are the IS journals’ policies and their editors-in-chief’s views on that linkage? This paper explores aspects of the relationship between conference presentation and journal publication. These include motivations for participating in conferences, potential for subsequent publication, preferred journal targets, and progress of paper development following conference presentation. Data forming the basis for findings and recommendations were drawn from two main sources: (a) a panel study with two sequential surveys of IS scholars who presented papers at three consecutive ICIS (International Conference on Information Systems) meetings (in St. Louis 2010, Shanghai 2011, and Orlando 2012), and (b) an email interview with twenty-one major IS journals’ editors-in-chief in regard to their respective journals’ policies and their personal views. The paper provides recommendations for various stakeholders including scholars, journal editors, conference organizers, and leaders in the field, as well as anyone outside the IS field who wants to understand its norms and culture.

An Exploratory Study on Sustainable ICT Capability in the Travel and Tourism Industry: The Case of a Global Distribution System Provider

Gholami,Roya (rghol2@uis.edu); Ravishankar, M.N.; Shirazi, Farid; Machetb, Clémentine


Climate change is one of the biggest challenges facing humanity today. Environmental values have spread globally and consumer beliefs are pressurizing firms in almost all industries to comply with green regulations. Sustainability has become such an important part of business strategy that almost every major company now has an executive with “sustainability” in his or her title. The travel and tourism industry produced 14% of global greenhouse gas emissions in 2010. Policy makers have responded with ambitious targets. The European Union aims to achieve a 60% reduction in transport sector emissions by 2050. This exploratory study draws on the Sustainable ICT Capability Maturity Framework (SICT-CMF) and the case of the Amadeus IT Group, a large travel and tourism industry corporate enterprise specializing in IT solutions. The study investigates the current capability maturity level of sustainable ICT within the company. The findings suggest that the company is a market leader in terms of sustainability initiatives, demonstrating an “Advanced” level of sustainability capability. The lessons learned from Amadeus’ experience are discussed.

Commentary: Reflections On Being A Professor-In-Residence

Street, Chris (Chris.Street@uregina.ca)


Deciding what to do during a sabbatical is one of the most exciting times for professors. An opportunity to recharge, renew, and develop professional skills is an important contributor to staying current and relevant in research and in the classroom. This paper describes a Professor-in-Residence (PiR) sabbatical experience that was somewhat non-traditional. Instead of visiting an academic institution a PiR sabbatical involves becoming embedded in a company, in this case in a small software company, and is the flip-side to the Executive-in-Residence concept popular in many business schools. This paper describes the experience and provides suggestions and insight for professors, hosts, and institutions when considering sabbatical options and how to plan for them.

Global Ranking of Management- and Clinical-Centered eHealth Journals

Serenko, Alexander (aserenko@lakeheadu.ca); Dohan, Michael S.; Tan, Joseph


This study presents a ranking list of 35 management- and 28 clinical-centered eHealth academic journals developed based on a survey of 398 active researchers from 46 countries. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association and Journal of Medical Internet Research were ranked A+ management-centered journals, and BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making and IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics were given A+ standing among clinical-focused journals. Journal longevity (years in-print) was found to have an effect on ranking scores so that longer standing journals have an advantage over their more recent counterparts, but this effect is only moderately significant and does not guarantee a favorable ranking position. This ranking list may be used by various stakeholders to advance the state of the eHealth discipline. There are both similarities and differences between the present ranking and the one developed earlier in 2010.

A Bring-Your-Own-Device Case for Use in the Classroom

Bierstaker, James (james.bierstaker@villanova.edu); Chung, Q B; Lee, Johnny JiungYee; Sipior, Janice


Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) refers to the use of privately owned mobile devices for employment related activities. This paper presents a real-world case study resource for teaching, based on an actual consulting engagement of a global accounting firm, to bring practical experience with managing BYOD into the classroom. Students, working in teams, assumed the role of consultants and defended their recommendations involving the recognition of benefits and challenges in managing BYOD within an organization. Evaluation of the use of the case study in an undergraduate case competition, judged by professionals from five global accounting firms, shows that in general the students agreed that they had a positive learning experience.

Theorizing Information Systems as Evolving Technology

Swanson, E. Burton (burt.swanson@anderson.ucla.edu)


Information systems scholars have struggled with the field’s fundamental relationship to technology. In particular, they have debated whether the IT artifact is unwisely taken for granted and whether or not it lies at the field’s core. Here, applying Brian Arthur’s general theory of technology, it is suggested that IS may itself be theorized as an evolving family of technologies. From this perspective, new avenues for IS research may be opened up, in particular, for historical and other related studies where the unit of analysis is the technology itself and the focus is its evolution.

MSIS 2016: Global Competency Model for Graduate Degree Programs in Information Systems

Topi, Heikki (htopi@bentley.edu); Karsten, Helena; Brown, Sue A.; Carvalho, João Alvaro; Donnellan, Brian; Shen, Jun; Tan, Bernard C.Y.; Thouin, Mark F.


MSIS 2016 provides a competency model and curriculum guidance for master’s level degree programs in Information Systems (IS). This joint effort by AIS and ACM builds on the foundation of four earlier graduate IS curriculum recommendations, following MSIS 2006 directly. MSIS 2016 is, however, an entirely new document that breaks new ground in several important ways. Instead of a sole focus on courses and the curriculum as a whole, it focuses on graduate competencies and higher level competency structures as its foundational building blocks. It has also been specifically designed for the global IS community by a task force with significant geographic and cultural diversity. In addition, MSIS 2016 explicitly recognizes that business is not the only domain of practice for IS programs and offers additional options such as health care, government, education, and law. Moreover, MSIS 2016 includes guidance regarding the processes that individual programs can use to derive a curriculum based on the specified graduate competencies. The task force hopes that graduate programs in Information Systems will find MSIS 2016 a valuable resource and that the report will serve as an important catalyst for ongoing discussion and continuous improvement processes in the context of graduate education in IS.

Using Embedded Mixed Methods in Studying IS Phenomenon: Risks and Practical Remedies with an Illustration

Yu, Xiaodan (yxd.xiaodanyu@gmail.com); Khazanchi, Deepak


Drawing on lessons learned from a mixed method research project, we illustrate how mixed research approaches are fruitful in studying the complexities and interactions inherent in IS phenomenon. This is particularly relevant in instances where the phenomena under investigation is relatively new and “messy” in that many opportunities for errors and omissions are possible. Mixed method research designs can also prove to be valuable in exploratory or new areas of research and provide empirical evidence from multiple sources and types of data that can be truly triangulated. The key contribution of this paper is a detailed discussion of the risks associated with using a specific mixed method research strategy, embedded mixed method design, and the practical remedies we used to address them. This discussion provides operational guidance to researchers interested in adopting mixed research designs to study emergent IS phenomenon.

Shadow Systems, Risk, and Shifting Power Relations in Organizations

Furstenau, Daniel (daniel.furstenau@fu-berlin.de); Rothe, Hannes; Sandner, Matthias


Drawing on notions of power and the social construction of risk, we build new theory to understand the persistence of shadow systems within organizations. From a single case study in a mid-sized savings bank we derive two feedback cycles that concern shifting power relations between business units and central IT associated with shadow systems. A distant business-IT relationship and changing business needs can create repeated cost and time pressures that make business units draw on shadow systems. The perception of risk can trigger an opposing power shift back through the decommissioning and recentralization of shadow systems. However, empirical findings suggest that the weakening tendency of formal risk management programs may not be sufficient to stop the shadow systems cycle spinning if they fail to address the underlying causes for the emergence of shadow systems. These findings highlight long-term dynamics associated with shadow systems and pose "risk" as a power-shifting construct.

Familiarity with Big Data, Privacy Concerns, and Self-Disclosure Accuracy in Social Networking Websites: An APCO Model

Alashoor, Tawfiq (talashoor1@gsu.edu); Han, Sehee; Joseph, Rhoda C.


Social networking websites have not only become the most prevalent communication tools in today’s digital age but also one of the top big data sources. Big data advocates promote the promising, future benefits of big data applications to both individuals and practitioners. However, public polls show evidence of heightened concerns about privacy among users of social networking websites. We review the privacy literature based on protection motivation theory and theory of planned behavior to develop an APCO model while incorporating novel factors reflecting the users’ familiarity with big data. Using a cross-sectional survey design and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques, our findings provide support for most of the proposed hypotheses. Specifically, we find support for a negative impact of awareness of big data and a positive impact of awareness of big data implications on privacy concerns. Privacy concerns in turn impact self-disclosure concerns positively and self-disclosure accuracy negatively. We also consider other antecedents of privacy concerns and test other alternative models to examine the mediating role of privacy concerns, to control for demographic variables, and to investigate different roles of the trust construct. Finally, we discuss the results of our findings and the theoretical and practical implications.

Explaining Software-as-a-Service Outsourcing: Economic and Social Considerations

Yao, Yurong (yyao@suffolk.edu); Kamis, Arnold A.; Watson, Edward


Software-as-a-service offers an innovative way to deliver software over the Internet to distributed organizations. While more and more SaaS providers are joining the market and competition among providers becomes more intense, it is important to understand the considerations of potential clients. Built on transaction cost theory and social exchange theory, this study empirically investigates, with a national survey of IT/IS executives, the role of economic factors and the impact of social relationships on the economic factors in the SaaS outsourcing decision. It is found that cost savings are a critical consideration in SaaS outsourcing, while social relationships exert a strong, positive direct impact on cost savings and positively moderate the impact of cost savings on SaaS outsourcing. This paper expands our theoretical understanding of the SaaS phenomenon and provides some managerial insights.

Persevere or Exit: What is the Right Strategy?

Bose, Indranil (bose@iimcal.ac.in)


The teaching case describes the telecommunications market of India as it goes through a major transformation due to adoption of mobile telephony. The country with its huge market size and low teledensity provides an attractive opportunity for foreign multinationals. Telenor enters into the Indian market through a joint venture with Unitech Wireless under the brand name of Uninor, and targets the value-conscious segment of mobile customers with its attractive pricing schemes. After a few years of rapid growth, Uninor faces a huge business risk when the Supreme Court of India rules that its purchased spectrum is illegal. The case describes the aftermath of the 2G spectrum scam and how it adversely affects the future of Uninor. At this critical juncture, Telenor faces a strategic decision dilemma. Should it continue its operations in the ever growing Indian mobile market or should it cut its losses and exit before any further damage is done to its global brand? This teaching case imparts important lessons about doing telecommunications related business in an emerging economy where returns are high and business risks immense.

Understanding the Why, What, and How of Theories in IS Research

Mueller, Benjamin (b.mueller@rug.nl); Urbach, Nils


Theory’s pivotal importance has been emphasized in the information systems (IS) discipline since its inception. As in many fields of science, IS scholars’ ability to understand and contribute to theory is an important qualification in research practice. This requires solid foundations for why we engage with theory, what theory is for us, and how we work with theory. We synthesize and reflect on the debates on theories and theorizing in the IS field. Our key contribution is to inform (new) authors of the prevailing state-of-the-art and to help identify opportunities in theorizing to put theory to work. While only a first step, we hope that our synthesis of the status quo advances our discipline’s current efforts towards enhancing theorizing and addressing the increasing demand for theoretical contributions and that it critically reflects on the status quo to help us move beyond it.

The World IT Project: History, Trials, Tribulations, Lessons, and Recommendations

Palvia, Prashant (pcpalvia@uncg.edu); Jacks, Tim F.; Ghosh, Jaideep; Licker, Paul; Romm-Livermore, Celia; Serenko, Alexander; Turan, Aykut H.


The World IT Project, the largest study of its kind in the IS field, was conceived more than a decade ago. This ambitious mega project with an enormous global scale was formally launched in 2013 and is expected to be completed by 2017, with major publications appearing through 2019. The project was in response to the pervasive bias in IS research towards American and Western views. What is glaringly lacking in IS research is a global view that tries to understand the major IS issues in the world in the context of unique cultural, economic, political, religious, and societal environments. The World IT Project captures the organizational, technological, and individual issues of IT employees across the world and relates them to cultural and organizational factors. This first major article provides the objectives and history of the project, its general framework, important decision points, and recommendations for future researchers based on lessons learned from a massive global project. Ultimately, we hope to provide a world view of IT issues that will be relevant to stakeholders at the firm, national, and international levels. We also invite scholars to send their recommendations for the analysis and writing of papers using our vast database.

The Sphere of Influence of Information Systems Journals: A Longitudinal Study

Jiang, Lianlian (Jiangl4@rpi.edu); Jiang, Dan; Grover, Varun


The paper examines the issue of the influence of the Information Systems (IS) field, represented by its key journals. We examine the well-studied topics of cumulative tradition and reference disciplines from two unique perspectives: cohesion and stability. We demarcate journals into “IS journals” as well as “non-IS journals that are receptive to IS work” and examine the sphere of influence of these journals based upon citations over time. Specifically, we compute a log-multiplicative model to identify subareas in the IS field and assess journal influence using the index of structural influence based on citations from a basket of 42 IS and IS-related journals over four periods: 1999-2000, 2004-2005, 2009-2010, and 2013-2014. Results indicate that the IS discipline has established a stable and cohesive knowledge underpinning, which converges with emerging (newer) journals, and diverges with non-IS journals during the late period. These results suggest that the field is developing boundary conditions and a strong cumulative tradition. Furthermore, based on our analysis, pure IS journals gradually gained dominance in their own network and even started to exert influence in the broader network of journals. These findings provide a unique complement to other recent studies that signify the influence of the IS discipline.

Delivering Disruption in an Emergent Access Economy: A Case Study of an E-Hailing Platform

Tan, Felix Ter Chian (f.tan@unsw.edu.au); Tan, Barney; Lu, Anthony; Land, Lesley


The growing adoption of platforms such as Uber and Airbnb has contributed to the emergence of an access economy, disrupting a number of incumbent industries in the process. In this study, we examine goCatch, one of Australia’s largest e-hailing and ride-sharing multi-sided platforms. From our investigations, we find that the technology affordances of multi-sided digital platforms can help to deliver new commercial services and offerings to consumers of the platform, enabling new forms of consumption, and subsequently disrupting the incumbent industry. The findings from our study provide the empirical premise for a model illustrating the role of technology in enabling consumer recognition, consumer engagement and consumer transposition in the context of e-hailing. For theory, we build on extant literature to identify the forms of motivational affordances leveraged in disruptive platforms and technologies. For practice, we conceptualise the function of technology-enabled gamification as an emergent strategy that can be used to induce consumers to change their behaviours, develop their technical skills and drive innovation that plays a central role in enabling digital disruption. This study also clarifies the relationship between technology affordances and value creation against the backdrop of the emergent access economy.

To fear or not to fear? A critical review and analysis of fear appeals in the information security context

Wall Jeffrey D (jdwall@mtu.edu); Buche, Mari W.


Controlling organizational insiders’ security behaviors is an important management concern. Research presents fear appeals as a viable security control to promote protective security behaviors. To date, security-related fear appeals have proven to be effective in controlling insiders’ security behaviors. However, a critical examination of fear appeals provides a different story. Herein, we critically analyze security-related fear appeal research from two ontological positions, critical realism and critical constructivism. The critical realist analysis identifies several issues with existing fear appeal research, which may be caused by particular research traditions. These traditions and issues are explicated in the paper. The critical constructivist analysis draws on critical management studies of control and the work of Foucault to identify the identities, beliefs, and values that fear appeals promote and the ways in which fear appeals create discursive closures that limit the consideration and discussion of other positions. Based on the two analyses, we provide important directions for future fear appeal research.