Individuals and organizations often need to detect whether the information provided by business partners is free from manipulations designed to favorably affect the behavior of the information recipients. The problem of detecting such manipulations is ubiquitous in organizations, has often high stakes, and is generally difficult to solve. A field experiment with 18 loan officers has tested two conditions derived from Social Contract Theory and designed to facilitate successful detection. The results show that knowledge of the information provider’s adversarial intentions and possible manipulations is a determinant of detection success.
Grazioli, Stefano, "Facilitating the Detection of Strategically Manipulated Information: A Field Test of Social Contract Theory" (1998). AMCIS 1998 Proceedings. 8.