Reports of several researchers stress the importance of actual face-to-face presence of people who participate in non-routine activities (Daft & Lengel, 1984; Nohria & Eccles, 1992). Even companies that take advantage of information and communication technology more vigorously then others, consider face-to-face contacts as being essential for communication. Senior managers of geographically dispersed firms are reported to spend much of their time on the road in order to meet face-to-face with their employees in local units. Especially by people in management positions, the electronic media are seen as a supplement, not as a replacement. The question is: how can this often reported need for face-to-face contacts be explained?
van der Smagt, A. and Gangopadhyay, Aryya, "Enhancing Virtual Teams: Relations vs. Communication Technology" (1998). AMCIS 1998 Proceedings. 192.