GIS usage has resulted in large volumes of spatial data, and organizations see the need for incorporating this data into their analysis and decision making. Managers are beginning to understand the potential of using DSS and EIS that are enhanced with spatial and temporal capabilities in addressing issues related to marketing, demographics, routing, etc. Traditional GIS have lagged behind in providing tools that support upper management in decision making and cooperative problem solving. As pointed out by Keenan (1997), and Mennecke (1997), there are ample opportunities for cross fertilization of ideas from IS and GIS research in this regard.
Sugumaran, Vijayan, "A Distributed Intelligent Agent-Based Spatial Decision Support System" (1998). AMCIS 1998 Proceedings. 136.