This paper examines the risks and the sources of risks of process changes associated with implementation of enterprise systems. Results of in-depth studies of four utility cases reveal that risks of process changes with enterprise systems are mainly associated with the packaged and integrated nature of enterprise system software, particularly its configurability, in-built processes, multiple options, data and process integration, streamlined processes, and standard processes. Organizations need to invest in on-going software exploration, business examination, and process and software changes to align new processes and management responsibilities to eliminate these risks and gain benefits.